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Encyclopedia Cecilia :: View topic

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Files veterinary medicine – Rhodococcus equi pneumonia and colitis in a foal: First report in

First case described in Chile of pneumonia and colitis Rhodococcus equi in a potrillo Rhodococcus equi pneumonia and colitis in a foal: First report in Chile E. Paredes1, M. V. , Dr. med. vet . ; R. GALLEGO2, M. V .

; A. M. Channel3, M. V. , M. Sc . ; O. ARAYA4, M. V. , Ph. D . ; E.

CHAHUÁN5, T. M . ; P. THOMAS5, T. M . ; J. ZAMORA5, M. V. 1Institute of Animal Pathology, Fac. Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile. Military 2Criadero Riñihue, Chilean Army. Animal 3Patología. Fac.

Of Agriculture and Veterinary. Universidad Nacional del Litoral, P. Kreder 2805, 3080 Esperanza, Santa Fe, Argentina. 4Instituto of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Fac. Veterinary Science. 5Instituto of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Austral de Chile. ; Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile. SUMMARY Rhodococcus equi was isolated for the first time in Chile from lung sample, bronchial lymph node and mesenteric lymph node Obtained from a 3 month chronic enteritis and foal With pneumonia. Gross lesions Were Characterised by pneumonia pyogranulomatous multiple abscesses varying size. Multiple well-defined necrotic foci, 1 to 3 cm in diameter, in the mucosal surface Were of the colon, and mesenteric lymph nodes Were enlarged. Due to the infectious disease condition, it is Necessary to carry out further studies to determine STI epidemiological relevance in Chile.

Keywords: pneumonia, colitis, Rhodococcus equi foal. Key Words: pneumonia, enterocolitis, Rhodococcus equi foal. INTRODUCTION Rhodococcus equi (R. equi), formerly classified in the genus Corynebacterium as C. equi, is an important pathogen of foals being pyogranulomatous etiologic agent of bronchiolitis and ulcerative enteritis, preferably less than 6 months old young horses (Burks, 1996; Nay, 1996; Fernandez, 1997; Castagna Vargas, 1998) with abscess formation of thoracic and mesenteric lymph nodes (Knottenbelt, 1993; Lopez 1995; Van Kruiningen, 1995) also may occur joint injuries, skin, bone , eye and various viscera (Fernandez et al. , 1995; Van Kruiningen, 1995; Burks, 1996; Nay 1996). R. equi has also been isolated from healthy and diseased animals of other species, such as pigs, cattle, sheep and also in free-living animals (Bern and Lämmler, 1994; Soedarmanto et al, 1997, 1998. ). In man is gaining importance as an emerging disease, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals (Prescott, 1991; Bern and Lämmler, 1994; Fernandez et al. , 1995; Takai et al. , 1995; and Lämmler Fuhrmann, 1997).

This article aims to communicate the first isolation in the country of R. equi, describe the typical injuries and cultural characteristics and antibiotic sensitivity of germ found in a dead foal pneumonia in the Tenth Region, Chile. MATERIAL AND METHOD In a stud farm 10 cases of diarrhea as the only symptom in foals of different breeds of 20-45 days old were detected in mid-November 1995, which did not respond to therapy potentiated sulfa (sulfa + trimethoprim) for 5 days and supportive therapy (oral rehydration salts, ringer lactate serum EV, bismuth subnitrate Flumixin oral Meglumine, EV); due to inclement weather, the offspring had remained confined stabling night with their mothers in a shed for three days, without spare bed. At the end of November totaled 40 cases detected (80% of total offspring), when Salmonella sp is isolated. E. coli and from faecal samples, starting specific treatment according to antibiogram sensitivity (Advocin® and Baytril) for 4 days, with no clinical improvement in most of them. In January 1996, 14 offspring remain with diarrhea (35% of affected), 9 of which had also respiratory compromise, which were treated with gentamicin and sodium penicillin E. V. (3 times a day for 10 days), with no remission of the symptoms. It was decided to leave without antibiotic treatment to a colt race Selle Français, 90 days old, being sacrificed later. necropsy according to the technique described by Walls and Cubillos (1995) was performed, taking samples in neutral formalin 10% of affected tissues (lungs and large colon) and samples of lung, lymph node bronchial and mesenteric lymph node for microbiological examinations. To this effect it was plated on sheep blood agar and chocolate agar, later to make morphological, physiological and biochemical isolates according to described by Holt et al exam.

(1994) and Fuhrmann and Lämmler (1997). In addition, isolates were determined sensitivity to different antibiotics by conventional methods. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a) Clinical manifestations and laboratory tests. The clinical symptomatology was characterized by watery diarrhea began at 36 days of age, with no initial respiratory compromise or alteration of physiological constants situation is described by Yager (1987) and Burks (1996), who argue that infection R . equi, diarrhea this may be the only sign. At 75 days of age, respiratory symptoms (mild cough, crackles and hissing noises cranioventral level of both lungs) and fever, similar to that described by Prescott (1991), Vivrette (1992) and Burks (1996) are detected. During the course of the disease he continued suckling foal. After initiation of respiratory symptoms blood count was performed, finding neutrofilia (10. 0 mil / microliter) with deviation to the left (N. baciliform 1. 5 mil / ul) and increased plasma fibrinogen concentration 10 g / l). The insidious presentation of the disease in this colt, characterized first by diarrhea and later by bronchopneumonia tending to chronicity and the history of other respiratory symptoms sporadically presented earlier in the stud farm, became suspicious of R.

equi infection , since the clinical characteristics coincided fully with those described in the literature (Vivrette, 1992; Knottenbelt. , 1993; Fernandez et al, 1995; Lopez, 1995; Van Kruiningen, 1995, Burks, 1996; Nay, 1996; Fernandez et al . , 1997; Vargas Castagna, 1998). b) Findings anatomical and histopathological. Necropsy performed the animal accentuated suspicion, since the postmortem examination revealed that serious injuries were confined to lungs and large colon. Both lungs were observed without collapsing, irregularly firm, with the presence of multiple nodules of varying sizes scattered all lobes and protuían into the pleural surface. When cutting the lung tissue, these nodules were observed as multiple focal and confluent areas of yellowish white color, completely replacing the lung tissue (Figure 1) and corresponding to areas of chronic inflammation, central necrosis and discrete purulent exudate. Bronchial lymph nodes were enlarged, hyperemic and exudative. Figure 1. Lung (cutting surface): confluent foci of necrosis and purulent inflammatory reaction. Lung (cut surface): large and confluent granulomas caseated. In addition, the lining of the colon showed greater number of circular ulcers, up to 3 cm in diameter, with a thick border of cream and a depressed with traces of necrotic tissue (Figure 2) center. Mesenteric lymph nodes were increased volume and had a cutting surface with great whitish exudates.

Figure 2. greater Colon: Circular mucosal ulcerations. Mucosal surface of the colon: well defined necrotic foci. Furthermore, histopathology found in the lungs the presence of large areas of necrosis with severe inflammatory reaction neutrohistiocitaria type, finding some giant cells. In turn, the more severe inflammatory bowel exhibited neutrohistiocitaria reaction type with large areas of necrosis, covering mucosa and submucosa. c) Microbiology. All lesions observed, and that characterize a disorder caused by this bacterium box, were confirmed with isolation lung, bronchial lymph nodes and mesenteric pure culture of a Gram positive bacteria and weakly acid resistant Ziehl – Neelsen modified, pleomorphic aspect cocoide (0,71,4 microns), distributed in cuneiform palisades or encapsulated. Colonies were small, 2 to 3 mm in diameter, smooth, shiny, pale mucous salmon acquired after March 4 days of culture and development in gelatin presented a strong orange. Other features are included in Table 1. TABLE 1. biochemical and physiological characteristics of R. equi strains isolated. Biochemical and physiological properties of the isolated strains.

biochemical and physiological characteristics Motility catalase gelatinase lipase urease Nitrate reduction CAMP Glucose acid Acid Lactose Acid Mannitol – +

– + + + + – – – According to the stated characteristics, it was identified as Rhodococcus equi strain, being sensitive to different antibiotics that are included in Table 2. TABLE 2. Antibiograms of the R. equi isolates. Antibiogram of the isolated R.

equi strains. Antibiotic Sensitivity Penicilinaaa Cloxacilinaa Erythromycin Lincospectin Bipencilaaa Baytrilaaaa Advocinaaa Ceftiofuraaa Resistant Resistant

Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Sensitive Although considered to R. equi has a cosmopolitan distribution, they had not described in Chile infections in foals by this agent. The table causes this microorganism is generally sporadic in enzootic areas, but also outbreaks have been reported responsible for great economic losses in the stud farm, although the most common is that the infection goes unnoticed (Knottenbelt, 1993, Burks, 1996; Soedarmanto , 1998). R. equi, causing a suppurative bronchopneumonia Subacute to chronic, associated with purulent lymphadenitis, pneumonic infections that 50% are complicated by intestinal infection (Yager, 1987), especially in foals under 6 months of age and particularly those of January 3 months of life, in which it has not yet fully matured their immune system being immunocompromised adults also particularly susceptible to infection (Burks, 1996). You can not ignore that, in addition, on some occasions it is believed that viral infections may be predisposing factors, such as with equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) (Nordengrahn et al. , 1996).

Treatment of the disease is difficult, not by the resistance R. equi may have antibacterial, but rather the facultative intracellular bacteria property, a factor that probably concurred in failure of therapy instituted in previous cases, since the isolated strain was sensitive to several antibiotics (table 2), including employees at the farm, although it must be remembered that in vitro conditions are different from those in vivo, which does not allow the conclusion that the antimicrobial susceptibility test result can be the same in the animal. Also, it should be recalled that the organism quickly becomes resistant when the antibiotic is used alone, hence it is necessary to use simultaneously more than one drug in prolonged, being recommended the primary application of erythromycin and rifampin, reinforced therapy support such as dimethylsulfoxide, aminophylline and even ranitidine (Fernandez et al. , 1995; Burks, 1996). However, Gustafsson et al. (1997) report that erythromycin may induce severe colitis in horses associated with large changes in intestinal microbiota of these animals. The discovery of R. equi in the country to presume that the infection is quite widespread, causing serious problems, given the survival and development of the agent in the external environment (especially where there is overcrowding, agglomeration of fecal material and dusty environments), the different routes of transmission, the difficulty of achieving an early diagnosis by the characteristic insidious disease development and the progressive increase in the incidence denouncing the literature, are a set of attributes that make R. equi one of the most problematic pathogens, refractory to treatment and causes a high rate of mortality in foals (Higuchi et al. , 1998). It is therefore high convenience continue studies on the subject to determine the epidemiological importance in the country, not only for its role in the health of the horses, but also because it is considered an important agent of emerging infections the human species, especially in immunosuppressed people. SUMMARY Described for the first time in the country, isolation of Rhodococcus equi from an infection in a colt of 3 months old, who suffered from chronic enteritis and pneumonia.

Also, they disclosed the lesions observed in the postmortem and histopathological examination consisting of multiple pulmonary nodules with areas of chronic inflammation, central necrosis with purulent exudate and bronchial lymph nodes increased in size: hyperaemic and exudative. In addition, the large colon showed ulcerations with necrotic tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged with great exudation, lesions which show typical features that characterize this pyogranulomatous infection of foals. As this is an emerging infectious disease, it is necessary to continue studies, in order to determine its epidemiological relevance in Chile. _________________________________ Accepted: 05/02/2000. BIBLIOGRAPHY BERN, D. , CH. Lämmler. 1994. Biochemical and serological Characteristics of Rhodococcus equi isolates from animals and humans. J. Vet.

B Med. 41: 161165. [Links] Burks, B. 1996. Managing Rhodococcus equi infections in foals. Vet. Med. 91: 656662. [Links] CASTAGNA VARGAS, A. 1998. Infecçâo Rhodococcus equi.

Quoted in RIET-CORREA, F. , A. L. Schild, M. C. MENDEZ (Eds. ). Doenças of ruminants and equines. Edit. University, Pelotas, Brazil. [Links] FERNÁNDEZ, A. S.

, S. M. Estein, P. SOTO. 1995. Rhodococcus equi: a model of immunopathology. Arch. Med. Vet. 27: 512. [Links] FERNÁNDEZ, A. S.

, J. F. PRESCOTT, V. M. NICHOLSON. Protective effect 1997. Against Rhodococcus equi infection in mice of purified IgG from horses Vaccinated With virulance associated protein (VAP) enriched antigen. Vet. Microbiol. 56: 187-192. [Links] Fuhrmann, C. , C.

Lämmler. 1997. Characterisierung von Rhodococcus equi Mensch und Pferd von isolaten. Berliner Münch. Tierarztliche Wochenschr. 110: 5459. [Links] Gustafsson, A. , V. BAVERUD, A. GUNNARSSON, M. H. Rantzien A.

Lindholm, A. , FRANKLIN, M. HORN-Rantzien. 1997. The association of erythromycin ethylsuccinatte With acute colitis in horses in Sweden. Equine Vet. J. 29: 314318. [Links] Higuchi, T. , S. TAHARAGUCHI, A. HASHIKURA, S.

Hagiwara, C. GOJO, S. Satoh M. Yoshida, S. TAKAI. 1998. Physical and serological examinations of foals at 30 and 45 days of age for early diagnosis of Rhodococcus equi infection on endemically infected farms. JAVMA 212: 776 781. [Links] HOLT, J. G. , N. R.

KRIEG, P. H. A. Sneath, J. T. Staley, S. T. WILLIAMS. 1994. Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th Edit. Williams \x26amp; Wilkins, Baltimore, USA. [Links]

Knottenbelt, D. C. 1993. Rhodococcus equi infection in foals: a report of an outbreak on a thoroughbred stud in Zimbabwe. Vet. 132 Rec. 7985. [Links] LOPEZ, A. 1995. Respiratory System. Quoted in: CARLTON, W. W.

and M. D. Mc GAVIN. Thomson’s Special Veterinary Pathology. 2nd Edit. Mosby, St. Louis. [Links] NAY, T. S. 1996. Extra-pulmonary Rhodococcus equi in a foal throroughbred. Dog.

Vet. J. 37: 623624. [Links] NORDENGRAHN, A. , M. RUSVAI, M. MERZA, J. EKSTROM, B. Morein, S. Belak. Equine herpesvirus 1996. Type 2 (EHV-2) as a predisposing factor for Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: prevention of the disease bifactorial With EHV-2 immunostimulating complexes.

Vet. Microbiol. 51: 5568. [Links] WALLS, E. , V. CUBILLOS. 1995. Manual of Necropsy in Domestic Animals. Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia. [Links] PRESCOTT, J. F.

Rhodococcus equi 1991: an Animal and human pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 4: 20-34. [Links] SOEDARMANTO, I. , R. OLIVEIRA, CH. Lämmler, H. DURRLING. 1997. Identification and epidemiological relationship of Rhodococcus equi isolated from cases of lymphadenitis in cattle. Zbl. Bak. 286: 457467.

[Links] SOEDARMANTO, I. , W. Zhicai, A. SETYAMAHANANI, CH. Lämmler. 1998. Pheno- and genotyping of Rhodococcus equi isolated from faeces of healthy horses and cattle. Res. Vet. Sci. 64: 181185. [Links]

Takai S. , Y. IMAI, N. Fukunaga, Y. UCHIDA, KAMISARA K. , Y. Sasaki, S. TSUBAKI, T. Sekizaki. 1995. Identification of virulence-associated antigens and plasmids from Rhodococcus equi in Patients With AIDS. J. Infect.

Dis. 172: 13061311. [Links] VAN Kruiningen, H. 1995. Gastrointestinal System. Quoted in: CARLTON, W. W. and M. D. Mc GAVIN. Thomson’s Special Veterinary Pathology. 2nd Edit.

Mosby, St. Louis. [Links] VIVRETTE, S. 1992. The diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals. Vet. Med. 87: 144-149. [Links] YAGER, J. A. 1987.

The pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals. Vet. Microbiol. 14: 225232. [Links]

Effects of emotional stress on oral health – Center of Modern Dentistry

In addition to the heart and psychological health, emotional stress can cause effects on oral health of any individual. The anxiety caused by the disease can significantly affect teeth. Emotional stress affects the immune system; This is responsible for combating the bacteria that cause periodontal disease making the chances of gum infections are higher. Several studies have confirmed that emotional stress causes oral infections, inflammation in the gums, bone loss and common bleeding gums that many perceive. A specific study conducted at the University of Michigan confirmed that those with emotional stress linked to financial problems, were those with higher indicators periodontal diseases. Emotional stress caused by family, work, and especially money lead to severe periodontal disease. However, those who were dealing with this stress in a healthy way, they had both disease risk. Aside from periodontal diseases, emotional stress can also cause mouth ulcers, which are indicators of the weakness of the body by stress. Due to emotional stress, many people tend to increase the intake of foods such as sugars that increase risk and damage dental health. It has even been shown that the buccal mucosa is highly influenced by psychological stress. So much so that this is characterized as the second leading cause of damage to the teeth and oral cavity. In addition, in recent years it has found a close relationship between the incidence of caries and emotional stress. Other of the many effects of emotional stress are:

Bruxism (teeth grinding) Tooth wear Fatigue in the muscles of the jaw Herpes labialis Gingivitis Effects of emotional stress on oral health


INTRODUCTION Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by Herpesvirus varicellae virus, which is equal to that of herpes zoster, and primarily affects the skin and mucosa of the mouth and throat. It is considered a childhood disease, because although babies are born with an immunity conferred by their mother, it disappears in the first year of life and the child can acquire the disease by direct infection. The disease has an incubation period of 14 to 16 days before symptoms appear, and both children and adults can spread the virus to each other; when the virus affects adults can cause hives. Outbreaks of chickenpox are strongest during the fall and winter, and it seems that occur in cycles of three to four years. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions or, most often through droplets of saliva of people affected, mostly in the period in which they have not yet manifested symptoms. The secretions of the skin lesions can spread the virus until completely dry. Moreover, indirect transmission through healthy carriers or objects is very rare. SYMPTOMS AND DEVELOPMENT The first symptoms are malaise, headache, slight rise in temperature, loss of appetite and sometimes a skin rash, reddish color, which disappears quickly. From 24 to 36 hours following the rash, which is usually mild in children appears, but appears much more intensity among adults. At first the spots appear in the mouth and throat, which quickly burst, causing pain and irritation: later spreads to the chest and face and sometimes the limbs. The spot begins as a point that ignites at the five or six hours, forming a vesicle filled with a clear liquid, which abounds viruses.

This stain is transformed to form a pustule, and finally a scab. The eruptions are developed over one or two days, in which the patient feels irritated and has high temperature up to 38 ° C. The intensity of the eruption varies, so while some children have very few spots, others may have a large number of them. Once formed scabs, lesions itchy welts that can last until the injury disappears after one to two weeks when the skin heals completely. Adults who get chickenpox, often have similar flu symptoms for a few days before the rash appears, and also that children take longer to recover. People suffering chickenpox should stay home. It is imperative that children keep bed, though some prefer. COMPLICATIONS Although there are very few risks associated with chickenpox cases occur in children who ingested steroid medications or suffer some other disease such as leukemia, which, if infected, may develop chickenpox extremely serious, which can be fatal . Another possible result, but very rare, is encephalitis or inflammation of the brain, which occurs when the virus affects the nervous system the virus affects the nervous system and can occur between the fourth and tenth day since the outbreak; this disease require hospitalization, as the utmost gravity. The most common complications derived from skin lesions, which can become infected and produce a yellowish pus; Also, injuries near the eyes can lead to an infectious conjunctivitis which is treated with antibiotics. Case apart are newborns whose mother suffers chickenpox few days after birth, and who are at high risk of contracting a severe form of the disease. Although chickenpox confers permanent immunity after having passed, some people, especially the elderly or debilitated, may suffer repeated attacks of herpes zoster virus reactivation.

TREATMENT There is no specific treatment against this virus, so it should be expected that the disease follows a normal course. Headaches or throat can be treated with analgesics, such as paracetamol, and itching caused by eruptions can be relieved by applying soothing calamine lotion, which has refreshing and softening properties. To reduce irritation antihistamines can also be applied, the doctor should advise, and fever, especially among adults, is lowered with aspirin or antipyretics. Children should not attend school for at least a week since the outbreak to relieve infections, although this measure should always be consulted with the doctor. After ten days or two weeks injuries have healed completely, even if they had been scratched or torn, the healing process may last longer. It should be noted that if injuries or infected scratch may leave scars. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vaccinating all children who have not given them the disease between 12 and 18 months of age. Older children should be immunized at the first opportunity with a single dose. The 13+ healthy children who have not given them the disease should be immunized with 2 doses in a range of 4 to 8 weeks NEXT HOME INDEX

Genital Warts: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Genital warts are venereal warts Also known as condylomata acuminate or. Genital warts are one of the MOST common kinds of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) or STIs (sexually transmitted infections). A genital wart is an infection of the skin, genital or anal in the area, as well as the mucous membranes of the rectum, cervix and vagina. In this article, we will look at the causes, diagnosis and treatment of genital warts. Also we will discuss any potential complications and how to avoid catching them. Contents of this article: The causes, complications and diagnosis of genital warts Treatment for genital warts and Pap tests Fast facts on genital warts Here are some key points genital warts acerca. More detail and supporting information is in the main article. Genital warts are contagious They are Caused by papillomavirus infecting the skin

They normally it appears as flesh-colored or gray swellings in the genital region Cryotherapy is used to remove genital Sometimes warts, but there are a number of removal options Genital warts are not harmful but Generally They can be unsightly Hormonal Changes During Pregnancy Might cause genital warts to grow, bleed or Increase in number The biggest risk factor for genital warts is unprotected sex Consist of diagnosis normally simple inspection of the lesions Some genital warts Respond well to topical medication. What are genital warts? According To Medilexicon’s medical dictionary, a genital wart is: “A contagious projecting warty growth on the external genitals or at the anus, Consisting of fibrous overgrowths covered by thickened epithelium showing koilocytosis, due to sexual Contact with infection by human papillomavirus; it is usually benign,, Although malignant change has-been reported almost Associated With particularly types of the virus. ” This article does not cover non-genital warts. We have a separate article for the causes and treatments of warts.

Causes of genital warts Genital warts on the basis of a man’s penis. Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons Genital warts, like other non-STD warts, are Caused by various types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infect That the top layers of the skin. There are over 100 different types of HPV cause warts That May, but only a small number of strains can cause genital warts. Those cause genital warts That do, UNLIKE other wart-causing HPVs, are highly contagious and are passed on through sexual contact with a person Who is infected. HPV types 6 and 11 cause genital warts the majority of. It is Estimated That 60% of people over WHO have sexual relations with a person has genital warts will WHO become infected and Develop them too. Generally, the genital warts will About three months after Appear infection – however, in some cases there May be no symptoms for many years. A study found 10% of That young women in England Have Been Infected With one or more strains of the human papillomavirus by the age of 16. Another study found That 26% of US girls aged 14-19 Have at Least one sexually transmitted disease. Risk factors for genital warts Having unprotected sex

Having unprotected sex with many different people Having sex with a person Whose sexual history is unknown Starting sexual relations at a young age (however, one study Seems to contradict this) Having stress and other viral infections handler (such as HIV or herpes) at the same time. A US study found That Women with Certain gene variations Appear to be protected Against cervical cancer. Complications of genital warts Cancer – HPV infection has-been closely association with cervical cancer, as well as cancer of the vulva, anus and penis. The majority of cervical cancers globally Caused by HPV infection are. Even though not all HPV infections lead to cervical cancer, it is crucial for a woman’s long-term health That She regularly have Pap tests. This study revealed some HPV infections That are closely linked to Present head and neck cancers. Another report says That is HPV linked to oral cancer Past. Pregnancy problems – Pregnant Women Who Have genital warts May Have Problems urinating. Haver the vaginal wall warts on her vaginal tissues stretch less During May childbirth.

There is a very small risk to mother with genital That warts When She Gives birth to the baby May Have cause warts in his / her throat (laryngeal papillomatosis) – When This does happen surgery May be needed to Prevent the airway from becoming obstructed. Hormonal Changes That Occur During Pregnancy May cause genital warts to grow, bleed, or Increase in number. Diagnosing genital warts Normally a visual inspection is enough to diagnose genital warts. Women – genital warts on the vulva May exist, cervix, upper thighs, inside the vagina, on the anus, and inside the anus. (= Vulva lips around the opening of the vagina. Cervix = entrance to the uterus or womb) Men – genital warts May exist on the penis, scrotum, urethra, upper thighs, on the anus, and inside the anus. (Urethra = tube urine passes than through. Scrotum sac = That holds the testicles) Oral sex raises the risk of genital warts in the mouth or Developing throat. A patient needs to be Examined by a health care professional – This Could be a nurse – to confirm a diagnosis of genital warts. In the UK people can go to Either Their GP (general practitioner, primary care physician), GUM (genitourinary medicine) clinic, sexual health clinic or to.

Even if a person’s partner has no symptoms, it is still possible to genital warts unavailable. People Should Go for a checkup if: The patient or partner has genital warts symptoms The patient recently HAD unprotected sex with a new partner The patient or partner Have had unprotected sex with somebody else The patient’s partner tells him / her That he / she has an STD The patient has an STD The patient is pregnant The patient is trying to get pregnant. A health care professional can diagnose genital warts Usually if any are visible. The examination May Involve looking inside the vagina, or anus. On rare occasions a biopsy of the wart May be taken. Sometimes, even if no warts are detected, the physician or nurse May ask the patient to come back at a later date.

Visible warts May not Appear straight after infection. On the next page, we look at what genital warts look like and the possible treatments for genital warts. We discuss why Pap tests Also are important.

herpes labialis

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Do you usually have herpes on the lips?

Continued progress in the treatment of cold sores annoying June 25, 2012by hola. com Progress continues in the treatment of cold sores annoying 1Comments There are certain people who are prone to cold sores on her lips. And that is a fairly common infection. It affects the lips, mouth or gums and the ‘culprit’ is the herpes simplex virus type I. It manifests itself as small, painful blisters commonly called cold sores. The problem is that after the first infection, the virus becomes dormant in nerve tissue of the face, and sometimes the virus “wakes up” (reactivates) and becomes manifest, say the experts Arkopharma. Why do I see? Stress, sun exposure, fever, a drop of defenses, etc . . .

favor their appearance. In addition, herpes viruses are spread by direct contact with someone who is infected. How does it manifest?  It begins with a tingling or itching after one or two days the area becomes sensitive to touch, heat and cold. Later a blister filled with liquid and lasts between 2 and 7 days is formed. And finally it breaks the crust will lasting other 2 to 7 days appearing. Then the injury is getting smaller and less painful until it disappears. Is there a treatment?  Herpes can not be cured, but treated. The most common treatment local application of creams with antivirals (acyclovir) that decrease the duration in about a day. And also there in the market dressings and patches for fever. However, the biggest problem for patients who suffer is the tendency to repeat itself. Therefore, the lambing of new treatment options are of great interest in the field of health.

A new treatment option Recent advances in medicine have shown that light can be a therapeutic tool, in particular infrared light to be considered, having a length greater than the red wavelength, emits heat and is not visible to human eyes. According to the Arkopharma laboratories (which just launched Herpestick, based on this system), infrared light has a healing effect on cold sores because it penetrates into the inner layers of the skin, right in the cell layer which usually is the virus latent herpes labialis. This naturally light activates cells of the immune system and accelerates cell recovery.

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