SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES They are caused by more than 30 different bacteria, viruses and parasites; most can lead to chronic diseases, infertility and possibly death. However, despite its high incidence, many young people and adults are unaware. And sufficient efforts to prevent and control are made. Are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), which globally affect one in 10 young people between 15 and 24 years and increasingly adults over 45 years. Here is a list of the 7 sexually transmitted diseases (STD) more common in the world: 1. CHLAMYDIA It is the most common bacterial disease. It is transmitted through vaginal, anal and oral sex. Also by sharing sex toys or mother to child during pregnancy or childbirth. It is cured with an antibiotic and the best prevention is condom. It is known as the “silent infection” because in most cases no symptoms.
It can infect the cells of the cervix, urethra, rectum and sometimes, throat and eyes. If not detected early can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), whose consequences are chronic pelvic pain and infertility. In women, the symptoms are abundant flow, abnormal bleeding between periods or during intercourse, painful urination or intercourse and lower abdomen. In men it manifests itself with a whitish fluid from the urethra and pain when urinating or testicles. 2. gonorrhea or GONORRHOEA Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection that can infect the urethra, cervix, rectum, anus and throat if you have oral sex. Symptoms usually appear between 1 and 14 days after intercourse. You may have no symptoms, and men often notice them more than women. Symptoms may be burning when urinating, white or yellow liquid penis, yellowish vaginal discharge and irritation or discharge from the anus. A gonorrhea infection during pregnancy can cause serious problems for the baby. If a mother is infected can pass gonorrhea to her baby during childbirth. It is easily cured with antibiotics.
But if left untreated, in women gonorrhea and chlamydia can become pelvic inflammatory disease which can prevent you from having children. If left untreated in men, it can also leave them sterile. 3. SYPHILIS Although easily cured with antibiotics or penicillin, causes thousands of deaths worldwide. It is spread by oral, vaginal or anal sex, skin contact with an infected person or sharing sex toys. It can also be transmitted in blood transfusions. It can infect pregnant your baby, which is known as congenital syphilis. The symptoms match in men and women but can be difficult to identify similar to those of fever and flu and even unnoticeable. In a first stage, two or three weeks after the bacteria has entered the body, some chancres (sores), usually painless appear. If untreated for long, syphilis can cause serious damage to the heart, brain, eyes and other internal organs and cause death. It is detected with a swab or blood tests and observation of the genital area. Syphilis significantly increases the risk of contracting the AIDS virus.
4. GENITAL HERPES Genital herpes is a herpes-like appearing in the mouth and sexually transmitted virus. You can also move to the mouth during oral sex. Sometimes symptoms appear long after the infection, even years. The virus produces painful sores around the vagina and penis. Like cold sores, once the virus enters the body remains there throughout life, so the ulcers may recur. Currently there are antibiotics that fight the virus and control, but there is no cure. In the case of pregnant women, it poses a risk to the baby, so it is necessary to consult a doctor if you have had herpes. 5. HIV / AIDS The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects immune system cells and destroys them, reducing the body’s ability to ward off other infections and cancer. There is no cure: the person is infected for life.
If you begin to develop infections or cancer is considered to have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS. HIV is transmitted only through the entry of blood, semen, vaginal fluids or breast milk to the body. The two most common ways of becoming infected is by vaginal or anal without a condom or by sharing infected needles or syringes sex. The virus can pass from mother to baby before or during birth and to breastfeed. Other routes of infection are blood transfusion, oral sex and to a lesser extent the dentist or through kissing if both people have mouth sores. The symptoms are not immediate. The only way to detect the virus is through a blood test. 6. TRICONOMIASIS Caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis, it is a very common STD. Almost always it transmitted by sexual contact. In women, it infects the cells of the vagina and urethra (the opening to urinate), in men the urethra. It is transmitted through vaginal sex, sharing sex or pregnant son toys.
Almost half of women have no symptoms. The discomfort may appear from 3 to 21 days after contracting the parasite. In women, the symptoms are white or bad smelling discharge, itching or burning in the vagina, painful urination and / or to have sex and abdominal discomfort. In men it presents fluid into the urethra, pain or burning during urination or inflammation of the glans or foreskin (less common). It is detected by swabbing and cured with antibiotics. In the case of pregnant women, women who are breastfeeding or taking birth control pills, consult your doctor. To prevent new infections, sexual partners should be treated too. 7. CONDYLOMA (HPV) Genital warts or genital warts are extremely common and contagious, caused by HPV human papillomavirus, or HPV, for its acronym in English. It is transmitted by having sex oral, genital or anal intercourse with an infected but may also contract with a simple skin to skin contact. It manifests itself in the form of warts located on the genitals or anus. Without medical attention, the warts grow and take on a cauliflower-like shape.
In men, genital warts are usually visible on the head of the penis. In women, some types of HPV there are more than 100- can lead to cancer of the cervix. Symptoms, plus warts include permanent discomfort in the genital area. If a pregnant woman has genital warts, your child may become infected during childbirth. The treatment of genital warts is usually quick and easy. Apply creams or warts are removed with heat, cold, laser or a minor surgical procedure. TIPS TO PREVENT THE RISK OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES Parents and educators should promote training and awareness of adolescents in relation to the risks they carry their sex. We must insist on them sex is not a game and to behave as adults requires a sense of responsibility, here are some recommendations to prevent these risks during this stage. Parents should not be afraid to give their children information on the subject of sexuality should not be an issue Tabo, instead talking about contraception in advance is important so are prevented and not take risks. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEENS It is important to learn care and healthy habits during this stage The importance of enjoying a responsible and free of violence and social pressures sexual life.
The freedom to make the decision whether or not to have sex freely. Being able to choose whether to have children or not and the time in which they must come. The right to receive clear accurate and timely information to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. It is important to learn and learn how to prevent breast cancer, cervical in women, and prostate cancer in men. TIPS FOR PARENTS It is important that at puberty parents or caregivers provide adolescents the opportunity to consult a professional physician, urologist or gynecologist allowed to inform the adolescent and teach as primary care in this stage. Parents should provide spaces where you should talk about sexuality in order to inform and learn about the issues doubters and know teenagers. Note that assume sexual choice is one of the most complicated definitions of this time of life. Often a teenager doubt their sexual identity, as are exploratory approaches among adolescents of the same sex, particularly among young people. Usually, teenagers require privacy in which to contemplate the changes taking place in their bodies. Ideally, the young man have his own room, but if this is not possible, they should have at least some private space. Teasing an adolescent child about physical changes is inappropriate, as it can cause self-consciousness and embarrassment. Parents should remember that the adolescent’s interest in body changes and sexual topics is normal and natural.
Does not mean that the child is involved in sexual activity. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHERS Teachers need to inform your students the topic of sexuality in a respectful and informative manner. If the school is Catholic and is prohibited from discussing contraception it is the responsibility of parents and close carers reporting this issue to avoid serious sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies early. Remember education begins at home, the school is a complement to this comprehensive training. It should be clear to parents about this to provide time and space quality in homes to their children. By: Dayana Salas Salas Psychologist, UPB Mental health specialist child and adolescent CES