Itch it not you, it itches me

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one in three Europeans carries the causative agent of genital herpes in itself. Knowledge do the least. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that one in three Europeans carries the causative agent of genital herpes in itself. Knowledge do the least. Even if there are no symptoms, the virus can be transferred to the partner during unprotected sexual intercourse. This shows a study published this week in the Journal of the American Medical Association. A virus with a penchant for stressful summer days Mostly it is the causative agent of genital herpes to the herpes simplex virus type 2. But also the type 1, the causative agent of cold sores can cause genital herpes. The symptoms are relatively similar to those of cold sores: It bubbles form, the skin itches and is red. As you experience the symptoms not on the lips on, but in the genital area. Most bubbles disappear after a few days of alone again. Creams containing the active ingredient aciclovir accelerate the healing process and prevent further bubbles are formed.

the bubbles widths still out on, the doctor prescribes aciclovir as tablets. Curable Genital herpes is not. After endured infection, the viruses move into the spinal cord back and wait until a lot of sun, stress or fever coaxes it out again. Per cotton swab to the lab In many cases, an infection runs without itching and blisters. The person therefore does not know that he carries the pathogen itself. he can passing him but still, as a study from the USA shows now. Overall, the researchers studied 461 patients who regularly occurring genital herpes symptoms, and 88 participants who indeed carried the pathogen, but had never shown symptoms. At least 30 days took the study participants every day a swab. That is, they dabbed with a cotton ball over her private parts. The cotton swab collection then came to the lab. There, the researchers examined how many viruses have become entangled in the lap. Condom or life imprisonment

The result: Even with no symptoms, the virus could be detected approximately every tenth day in the genital area. Persons who are regularly formed bubbles that viruses could be found on every fifth day in the genital area. That is, occur herpes symptoms, the virus is active. However, anyone who has never had symptoms, can infect their partners. Presumably this is even more dangerous because the person thinks he is healthy. He could easily protect his partner from the pesky viruses: using a condom. If unprotected intercourse, however, the virus quickly go over to the partner. And stay there – for a lifetime.

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Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea

By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD Pityriasis Rosea is a skin disorder that manifests with widely distributed skin lesions that are red, scaly and often itchy. The condition usually affects people aged between 10 and 40 years and is slightly more common in women than men. For most people that is resolved the condition by itself within 4 to 8 weeks or than twelve weeks’ or three months is no specific treatment is required and. Treatments are mainly to relieve symptoms such as itching or correct secondary bacterial infections and other complications. 1-7 Treatment of Pityriasis Rosea includes skin moisturizers or softeners, creams, corticosteroids, etc. contains. Skin moisturizers or plasticizers These are skin creams that are aligned to moisten and soothe the skin over the lesions. This results in the alleviation of itching. These are available as ointments, lotions and. Some people also soaps with moisturizers may be prescribed.

Normal soaps irritation and deplete the layer of oils on the skin due to their hardness. Patients may be advised to avoid using these soaps and soaps with higher moisturizer or emollient content. These can be used to prevent to alleviate as many times as necessary itching and dryness of the skin. The moisturizer or emollient applied gently avoided in the direction of hair growth and strong rub. Creams with corticosteroids These drugs are used to reduce inflammation on the lesions. These must be prescribed by the physician for most people. Corticosteroids are prescribed when plasticizers do not show efficacy. These are substantially synthetic form of hormones produced by the adrenal gland in the human body. They act caused by the reduction of itching, redness and inflammation. The creams are easily applied to affected areas of the skin once or twice daily. Steroid creams are not prescribed for more than a week and usually have an average dose is recommended. This is because they up the inflammation, can result when an abrupt end to complications such as flaring.

Some people may also experience a slight burning or stinging sensation when they first apply the drug. This is usually a temporary side-effect and disappears with time. Antihistamine with pills These are anti-allergy medications that can relieve itching. The most commonly used drugs in this class are hydroxyzine or chlorpheniramine. causing the first generation antihistamines such as chlorpheniramine sedation and drowsiness and served earlier for allergies. This may help in Pityriasis Rosea, as they help patients sleep better. However, patients should not drive or operate heavy machinery while using this medication. The newer agents normally do not cause sedation but relieve itching. UVB light therapy If patients do not they can respond to the common treatment is recommended for UV-B light therapy. It controlled exposing the affected skin for a few minutes at regular intervals on the UV-B rays under the supervision of a dermatologist or a skin specialist. Natural sunlight can also be useful, but sun is to be avoided and exposure to sun rays can also lead to a higher risk of skin cancer.

Other drugs for pityriasis rosea Other drugs that can be tested include acyclovir, the antiviral drugs that can be used for herpes infections. There is limited evidence that acyclovir, Pityriasis Rosea is useful and also it is advantageous only when it is taken in the first week of the condition. Those who develop secondary bacterial infections on the lesions also need antibiotics to treat infections. Avoidance of factors which worsen the condition Patients are advised to avoid anything that worsens their condition. These include hot baths, physical activity that leads to sweat so. checked from April Cashin-Garbutt, BA Hons (Cantab) further reading sources http://www. NHS. uk/Conditions/Pityriasis-rosea/Pages/treatment.

aspx http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001874/ http://www. BBC. co. UK/Health/physical_health/Conditions/pityriasisrosea. shtml http://www. Patient.

co. uk/Doctor/Pityriasis-rosea. htm http://UHS. Berkeley. edu/Home/healthtopics/PDF%20Handouts/Pityriasis%20Rosea. PDF http://Evans. amedd. Army. mil/Peds/PDF/pityros. PDF http://www.

insted. in/eJournal/review23. PDF

PharmaWiki – vaginal thrush

Vaginal yeast infections fungal infections indication CandidamykoseEin vaginal thrush is a yeast fungi by, usually Candida albicans or other Candida species, caused infection of the vagina and the vulva. It manifests itself in symptoms such as itching and burning and redness, swelling and discharge. It will address the disease usually with fungal agents or alternatively with antiseptics. Fungal be applied on the one hand locally and available without a prescription in the form of vaginal tablets or Vaginalcrèmen. On the other hand, the intake of capsules or tablets is possible, which must be prescribed by a doctor. It should be noted that numerous other diseases cause a similar clinical picture. synonym: mycosis, Genitalmykose, vaginal candidosis, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, vaginal mycosis symptoms An acute uncomplicated vaginal mycosis occurs more frequently in women of childbearing age. In girls and postmenopausal women is however rare. Approximately 75% of all women suffer once in their lives on a vaginal thrush. The clinical presentation is different. The symptoms include:

Itching and burning (Keynotes) Inflammation of the vagina and vulva with symptoms such as burning, redness, swelling and pain, whitish lining No to mild to strong, low-viscosity, aqueous effluent to Chunky Only faint odor Pain during intercourse Burning in micturition In severe forms can lead to erosions of the vagina and skin changes in the vaginal area and thighs. Other possible complications include chronic recurring vaginal mycoses and loss of quality of life. Causes and transmission It is an infection with yeast, in about 85% to 95% of cases with Candida albicans, Candida glabrata with rare or other Candida species. Vaginal candidiasis among the opportunistic infections. The fungi can occur naturally in the vagina in many women; only facilitated by a number of factors results in an infection. Risk factors include:

Numerous other factors are discussed, but are controversial. The fungi can come possibly from the rectum, from the vagina (relapse) or the penis of the partner. Although it is known that men can be infected asymptomatic and the role but actually makes it in the transfer is uncertain. diagnosis The diagnosis is made in medical treatment based on the patient history and clinical inspection, microscopy of the vaginal secretions and possibly by growing a fungal culture. Microscopy is often negative despite active infection. differential diagnoses It is not possible to make a diagnosis solely on the basis of symptoms and a study from the 1990s showed that misdiagnosed the majority of women themselves. Probably other causes of vaginitis are too little known. An empirical self-treatment is possible, but an accurate evaluation requires a gynecological examination. As exciting a vaginal infection, bacteria (for example, gonorrhea, genital chlamydia infection), viruses come (for example, genital herpes) and parasites (for example, trichomoniasis) in question. Other differential diagnoses include a bladder infection and skin diseases such as atrophic, allergic or irritative vaginitis, trauma, foreign body, warts, scabies and lice. Medication

For the treatment of acute uncomplicated and fungal infectious agents (antimycotics) are applied mainly to be administered either locally or orally. Both treatment options are about equally effective and have advantages and disadvantages (Nurbhai et al. , 2007). The co-treatment of the partner is only necessary if this also shows symptoms. These include itching, burning, redness and white film on the penis (balanitis mycotica). For treatment of special patient groups (eg pregnant women, diabetes, immunosuppression, chronic disease), we refer to the literature. Symptomatic treatment among other glucocorticoids against the lesions, cleansing lotions and skin care products are applied. Local antifungals Topical antifungals are administered locally vulvovaginal. Creams used for topical treatment of a vaginal tablet, an ovule or a vaginal cream are administered internally in the vagina. Clotrimazole (as gyno Canesten®, Fungotox®) is one of the means used in practice most frequently because it is available without a prescription from the age of 18 years. There are numerous alternatives to prescription: butoconazole (Gynazole®), econazole (Gyno-Pevaryl®), miconazole (Monistat®) oxiconazole (Oceral®) Ciclopirox (Dafnegil®), Nystatin. The duration of treatment varies depending on the drug and dosage form and may be 1, 3, amounted to 15 days. According to literature, the differences in efficacy marginal.

The local application poses less risk of adverse effects. Hypersensitivity reactions and local irritation may occur. Systemic antifungal agents: In the inner treatment tablets or capsules to be taken. Among the active compounds used include fluconazole (Diflucan®, generics) and itraconazole (Sporanox® G, generics). This treatment method is less cumbersome, but when taking more adverse effects and interactions with other drugs are possible. Doses are usually either as a single dose (fluconazole, 1 x 1) or on two consecutive days (itraconazole, 2 x 2). Other antifungal agents are also permitted in different treatment regimens, for example, Ketoconazole (Nizoral®, taking for 5 days). Antiseptics: In addition to the antifungal some antiseptics for local treatment in the form of Vaginalovula or tablets are used as an alternative. These include dequalinium (Fluomizin®), povidone-iodine (Betadine ovules), boric acid, octenidine and hexetidine (Vagi-HEX®). Alternative Medicine: In alternative medicine are (wrapped in gauze and crushed), for example, garlic, tea tree oil (a few drops in a bath or a vaginal gel or in Johannisöl) applied. Possible side effects include local irritation. The effectiveness of these methods do not have information. prevention

For prevention, there is a series of behavioral recommendations that are occupied but from our perspective is limited. Systemic antifungals such as fluconazole also be taken preventively. Probiotics like lactobacillus (Lactobacillus acidophilus) are introduced in the form of yogurt on the tampon or ovules (as Gynoflor®) for prevention in the vagina to restore the natural vaginal flora. During pregnancy In the literature it is recommended to consult your doctor or health care professional at a vaginal thrush during pregnancy. Clotrimazole (as gyno Canesten®, Fungotox®) must not be issued for self-medication, according to the summary of pregnant women in the pharmacy. literature Angotti B. , Lambert C. , Soper E. vaginitis: making sense of over-the-counter treatment options. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2007 Pubmed Drug prescribing information (CH)

das Neves J. , Pinto E. , B. Teixeira, Dias G. , P. Rocha, Cunha T. , B. Santos, Amaral M. H. , M. F. Bahia Local treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: general and practical considerations. Drugs, 2008 68 (13), 1787-802 PubMed

Eckert LO. Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis. N Engl J Med, 2006 355 (12), 1244-52 PubMed Gross U. Kurzlehrbuch Medical Microbiology, Georg Thieme Verlag, 2006 Hof H. Vaginal candidiasis. The gynecologist, 2006 39 (3), 206-213 Marrazzo J. Vulvovaginal candidiasis. BMJ, 2002, 325 (7364), 586 Pubmed Mendling W.

alternative treatment options for recurrent vaginal mycosis. The gynecologist, 2001 34 (10), 967-968 Nurbhai M. , Grimshaw J. , Watson M. , Bond C. , J. Mollison, Ludbrook A. Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush). Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2007 CD002845 PubMed Nyirjesy P. , Weitz M. V.

, Grody M. H. , Lorber B. Over-the-counter and alternative medicines in the treatment of chronic vaginal symptoms. Obstet Gynecol, 1997, 90 (1), 50-3 Pubmed Owen M. K. , T. L. Clenney Management of vaginitis. Am Fam Physician, 2004 70 (11), 2125-32 PubMed Sobel J. D.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Lancet 2007, 369 (9577), 1961-71 PubMed Sobel J. D. , Faro S. , R. W. Force, Foxman B. , W. J. Ledger, Nyirjesy P. R. , Reed B.

D. , Summers P. R. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic considerations. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1998, 178 (2), 203-11 Pubmed Soong D. , Einarson A. Vaginal yeast infections during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician, 2009 55 (3), 255-6 PubMed Watson C. , Calabretto H. Comprehensive review of Conventional and non-conventional methods of management of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynecol 2007, 47 (4), 262-72 PubMed

eMedicine http://emedicine. medscape. com/article/270872-overview Authors and peer review Authors: PharmaWiki team. Conflicts of interest: None / independent. The authors have no relations with the manufacturers and are not involved in selling the products mentioned. Peer Review: From this article was an internal peer review carried out.

Conjunctivitis • symptoms of infection, duration \x26amp; Treatment

In conjunctivitis (conjunctivitis) are bacteria often the triggers, but also viruses, chlamydia, smoke and dust can cause conjunctivitis. we need the conjunctiva, among other things, to get no dry eyes to produce tears and also in the immune Save the conjunctiva plays an important role. symptomatology Conjunctivitis is manifested by various symptoms. Characteristic are dry, burning eyes, which are often glued morning. The eyes look red and swollen. The patient often notices photosensibilization otpische stimuli may not be so well made and even care for headaches. Many sufferers complain of a foreign body sensation in the eye, like being in it a grain of sand or the like. From the eyes of a secretion secreted, which may be watery, purulent and sticky. The symptoms are very uncomfortable for many patients and often conjunctivitis leads to disability, especially when to be worked, for example, on the computer. In the acute phase, the patient is often impossible longer to look at a bright screen. Conjunctivitis generally ensure a foreign body sensation in the eye The virus-induced conjunctivitis

Evolves conjunctivitis caused by an allergic reaction, the disease often starts with an itch and a sudden strong flow of tears. The virus-induced conjunctivitis can affect one or both eyes and the eye reddens, especially in the lower part. Itching, foreign body sensation and sometimes even vision problems are also typical symptoms of virus-induced conjunctivitis. Sometimes it is also a side effect of a cold. The bacterial conjunctivitis If it is a bacterial infection, the secretions of mucous substances are particularly characteristic. Mostly this form occurs in both eyes. It may become hard by the conjunctiva and the simultaneous drought to Schorfbildungen. Attention, danger of infection! When conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, which is located on the eyeball, and on the inside of the lids. A distinction is an infectious and non-infectious inflammation, wherein the infectious conjunctivitis is contagious. Development and symptoms of infectious conjunctivitis On one hand, can be caused by a viral infection, contagious form of conjunctivitis.

Here an epidemic infection is particularly contagious, because they like an epidemic may spread. Other types of conjunctivitis caused by viruses are usually caused by the common cold or herpes viruses. Also bacterial conjunctivitis, which are triggered due to bacteria are contagious. Most inflammation transmitted by direct or indirect contact with eyes, for example, with infected hands. Visually it does not recognize not whether the conjunctivitis contagious, so infectious is or. Mostly, the doctor can find out by a swab, which pathogens are responsible for inflammation. Symptoms range from mostly watery, burning eyes on swollen and red colored conjunctiva to purulent secretions, which can clog the eyes at night. Usually only one eye is initially affected by the inflammation, but within a short time, the inflammation attacks often on the second eye. When symptoms such as sensitivity to light, increased pus or pain is to be expected with a worsening of the disease, which should definitely be treated by an eye specialist. minimize risk of infection Bacterial and viral conjunctivitis are usually transmitted indirectly by bacteria or viruses on hands or other objects. As a countermeasure, consistent hand washing is absolutely necessary, especially if the other person is suffering from an epidemic of conjunctivitis. If despite everything one eye affected, the rubbing of the eye should be avoided, otherwise inflammation can relatively quickly spread to both eyes.

should order to minimize the risk of infection disposable handkerchiefs are used to dry the eye. Also towels should be changed immediately and are used only by the person concerned. If you want to remove pus from the eye, should use only boiled water. Therapy and cure Conjunctivitis should be treated usually by a doctor. This often prescribed eye drops. In the case of a bacterial infection usually will drop with antibiotics that have an antibacterial effect, prescribed. In a viral infection schleimhautabschwellende eye drops are used, possibly artificial tear to lubricate the eye. The course of disease in a conjunctivitis is usually straightforward and with the help of eye drops the symptoms disappear within a few days to a week. An inflammation of the conjunctiva is one of the two most common inflammatory eye diseases and accordingly many people are affected. With appropriate hygiene inflammation are usually subsided as quickly as they appeared. As prevention so wash hands, wash hands and again wash hands. The treated bacterial conjunctivitis usually disappears within one to three days, improvement often occurs ever after the first treatment.

Viral-induced conjunctivitis can last longer because they can not be treated with medication. To speed healing, should be avoided in any case to contact lenses.

Hay fever due to climate change – online pharmacy apo-discounter. The mail order pharmacy with

Most people look forward to the long winter period in the spring. For people allergic to pollen, but begins with the warm season a phase of suffering. Almost one in four adults in Germany now reacts with allergic rhinitis, constant sneezing and itchy eyes to the pollen in the air. Experts believe that the number of allergy sufferers will increase significantly in the coming years. The reason they call climate change. Global warming can fly longer pollen The members of the society “European Respiratory Society” expect that climate change will have impacts on health. This affects not only those who already from respiratory diseases, ie for example from hay fever (allergic rhinoconjunctivitis) suffers. Even people who are not allergic to date could be affected in the future. Because the altered climate favors pollen allergies massively. “The effects of climate change are immediately and clearly visible in a few medical fields such as in allergy. Pollen-allergic people are stronger and longer sick in than before,” says the Wiesbaden allergist Professor Ludger Klimek from Doctors Association of German Allergists (ÄDA) , Due to the increase of the average temperature hike foreign, highly allergenic plants such as Ambrosia (ragweed) in our latitudes. also native plants – – In addition, the flowering period starts earlier and earlier.

Thus, the period of high allergen load is extended. Grass-pollen filters while in Germany, according to current research continues the most common triggers for allergic rhinitis represents.  Gentle Help for sore noses and dry Allergy Eyes In addition to an allergy test to a specialist, which is a basis for targeted treatment of overreaction of the body, each with allergies can make life easier for addition during the pollen peak period. Doctors advise primarily to expose themselves to the lovely particles as little as possible and to fix for example pollen screens on windows and doors of the apartment. To rid the nasal membranes from the pollen, a dexpanthenolhaltiges seawater nasal spray can help (z. B. from Bepanthen). The spraying cleans and reduces the concentration of pollen in the nose. Together with the active ingredient Dexpanthenol nourishes the seawater natural origin the nasal mucosa, keeps it moist and thus provides dry noses significant relief during pollen intense time. Against sores on the nose and further dehydration helps the Bepanthen ocular and nasal ointment. Here the active ingredient panthenol supports the sensitive cells of the nasal mucosa thereby to regenerate. Also conjunctival irritation, often complain of the pollen allergy can be treated with eye and nasal ointment of Bepanthen.

A tube once used for the nose, however, should be no longer used because of adherent bacteria on the eye. Effective relief for dry eyes allergic procure Bepanthen eyedrops. In addition to moisturizing hyaluronic acid they also contain dexpanthenol, which soothes the eye surface. More information on the Bayer AG helathcare page.

Viewpoints: Celebrating Health Law anniversary (or not); to increase Tricare the “modest” fee; Funding Planned

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: New Health Care Law Helping middle-class families Since President Barack Obama’s Affordable Care Act signed into force a year ago this month, we have endless partisan bickering belongs on the repeal efforts, legal challenges and fairness. But we have little about how the law can be heard help secure the future of all Americans (Donna E. Shalala, 19:03) today. Kaiser Health News: What A Difference A Year Makes [M] any Americans are personally under this law. . . . They watched, Health and Human Services Secretary Kathleen Sebelius repeated censor insurers who did not agree with her. . . .

First, the individual mandate is a tax was, then it was not, then it was. At a certain point, people begin to feel offended (Michael Cannon, 21:03). The Kansas City Star: After one year, Health Care Law Benefits America endured Comprehensive health care reform has a rocky first year. It has been taken to court, used as a punching bag and threatened taken with his performance. Fortunately, the Affordable Care Act remains intact and already health changed in a positive way (20:03). The Baltimore Sun: Obamacare is unhealthy for hospitals In recent months, the US Department of Health and Human Services a long list of trade unions and employers from an Affordable Care Act provision that it would continue to exempt too expensive for them, some of their health insurance plans. But, in contrast, HHS apparently has no intention at all to do something to a new health care reform mandate, which could eventually force hundreds of much-needed US hospitals, closed their doors (John D. Hartigan, 19:03). The Washington Post: Questions Military Pensioners pay a bit more for health care is reasonable “Simply untenable. ” This is US Secretary of Defense Robert M.

Gates’ s assessment of the spiral of health care costs for military personnel, retirees and their families. . . . If Congress can not manage to increase the small fee that Mr. Gates, supported by the Joint Chiefs of Staff investigated, it can not pretend to seriously control the deficit (21:03). The Denver Post: Modest hike the cost of Tricare We hope that the federal legislature will look carefully at the proposed increases and see them for what they are: a fair effort to refocus Pentagon spending to ensure the military continues to have the money to the nation in a time of dwindling resources protect (21:03). CNN: Cut Planned Parenthood funding Eventually, the Planned Parenthood Federation of America will have to accept a cut in federal funds. . . .

Health departments and free clinics (and even a growing number of pro-life pregnancy daycare) carry a low or no-cost STD testing, and they also regularly refer women for other screenings and services they do not provide directly (Chuck Donovan, 19:03). San Francisco Chronicle: Health Care Quality rests on coordination How to receive a zero growth in the health insurance premium? With a model that will be replicated widely due to be federal health reform, Northern California are making healthcare providers that happen right now, tens of thousands of patients. . . . Enter the responsible maintenance organization, or ACO. As the name suggests, the concept provides a coordinated effort by insurers, doctors and hospitals, in which all take responsibility for lower costs and improved quality, and all will be rewarded, as a group, to progress toward both goals (Paul Markovich , 19:03). The Sacramento Bee: State must handle On healthcare obligations Get Retiree health care costs are of double-digit percentage annually increasing because government workers are earlier to retire and live longer, and the cost of health care is increasing rapidly. . .

. In most cases, the state pays 100 percent of the retiree health premium and 90 percent depending eligible for a retiree, compared with 80 to 85 percent of current workers and their dependents. That has to end. California can not afford to (21:03). San Francisco Chronicle: Want Enduring health reform? Investment in education How can our society afford to get these hard-fought reduction in the number of uninsured? The permanent solution lies beyond our current health care reform debate: investing in better education for disadvantaged children (William H. Dow, 20:03).  This article was reprinted from kaiserhealthnews. org with permission from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kaiser Health News, an editorially independent news service, is a program of the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonpartisan health policy research organization unaffiliated with Kaiser Permanente.

Gynecological care for women with HIV

Sexually transmitted infections The “HIV Epidemiology Research Study” (HERS), and other studies have found no significant differences in the prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and syphilis among women with HIV serostatus. However, the presence of new or recurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) indicates a high-risk behavior and warrants further advice. Because the presence of STIs increases HIV shedding (which may increase the risk of HIV transmission to partners), STIs should be treated aggressively in women with HIV. Many STIs are asymptomatic; therefore sexually active women with HIV should be tested for curable STIs (syphilis, for example, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, chlamydia) at least annually. More frequent STI screening may be indicated because of the symptoms and risk behavior. The diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhea, chlamydial infection and trichomoniasis are the same for HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. However Closer observation after treatment for syphilis for HIV-infected women is needed. Genital ulceration (GUD) by Herpes simplex virus type 2 Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV 2) is the most common cause of genital ulcers worldwide. While the prevalence of HSV 2 varies according to geographical location, it is in high percentages (50-90%) regularly present in people who are infected with HIV. In the case of those that are co-infected with HIV and HSV 2, a higher excretion of HSV-2 and HIV is found in the genital tract than in those infected with HIV or HSV-2 alone. A co-infection with HSV increases the risk of HIV acquisition almost twofold.

Women with HIV can have recurring problems with herpes outbreaks and can benefit from episodic or suppressive therapy. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce the HSV excretion, although the data are contradictory. The treatment guidelines for sexually transmitted diseases ( “Sexually Transmitted Disease Treatment Guidelines”) of the CDC recommendations offer both an episodic and suppressive HSV therapy in women with HIV. vulvovaginal candidiasis Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common cause of vaginitis in women. Both in women with and women without HIV Candida albicans is the most common cause of VVC. Studies have consistently found that both vaginal colonization and VVC occur more frequently in women with HIV infection. However, the clinical spectrum of signs and symptoms and the severity of the disease do not appear to differ from those who are infected with HIV, and those who are not infected. The incidence of vaginal yeast colonization is inversely related to the CD4 count, which may predispose the subgroup of women with HIV and low CD4 count for more frequent or more severe infections. Because the clinical and microbiological spectrum of VVC appears similar for women with and without HIV, the treatment decision should be based on the clinical indication. VVC is associated with increased cervicovaginal HIV excretion; in women with HIV, however, the effect of treatment for VVC in HIV transmission is unknown. Bacterial vaginosis The bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in women of reproductive age.

Several clinical studies have found that the prevalence of BV in women with HIV is similar to that in women without HIV. However, the analysis of HERS showed that BV is more prevalent in women with HIV; rather due to increasingly persistent infections due to more frequent infections. Women who are immunosuppressed (CD4 T-cell count <200 cells / ml), have a higher prevalence of BV than women with HIV with higher CD4 count. Women with HIV may require a longer or more frequent treatment. Otherwise, the therapeutic regimen for BV does not differ from that seen in non-infected women with HIV infection. Pelvic inflammatory disease leave a few data suggest that the history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is worse in women with HIV than in women without HIV. Therefore, women should be treated according to the usual treatment criteria. Tuboovarialabszesse may be more common in women who are infected with HIV. However, these appear to be equally good as uninfected women in the usual intravenous and oral antibiotic therapy to address. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical disease The human papilloma virus causes cervical cytological abnormalities (such as atypical squamous of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (SIL) and cervical cancer more than 40 types of HPV cause genital infections;. The types are usually grouped into low-risk (eg 6 , 11) or high-risk (eg, 16, 18) for the development of cervical cancer. persistent infection with high-risk HPV type is necessary for development of a high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer to invasive while both low- risk and high-risk HPV types can cause ASCUS and low-grade SIL. Almost 70% of invasive cervical cancer is caused by HPV types 16 and 18. HPV infections are widespread, common and usually transient and asymptomatic in the general population of sexually active young women. Approximately 70% of new HPV infections in young women without HIV heal spontaneously within one year and up to 91% cure within 2 years. For women with HIV, HPV infection is more prevalent and persistent, the proliferation of high-risk types is different and cytological abnormalities are more prevalent. It turned out that high-risk HPV types lower removal rates than low-risk types. However, there seems to be no difference in HIV serostatus. The degree of immunosuppression is inversely correlated with the incidence and severity of cytological abnormalities. The relationship between HIV infection and invasive cervical cancer is less clear. Some studies have reported that the most of the abnormalities are low grade, although the HIV infection increases the risk of abnormal cervical cytology. High grade lesions and invasive cancer are rare (ie similar to women without HIV). However, it seems that women with HIV and invasive cervical cancer have a higher degree of immunosuppression than women with HIV who are immunocompetent. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has the length and quality of life of women improves with HIV infection. Consequently, scientists have suggested that HAART can reduce the risk of cervical dysplasia and further to invasive cervical cancer by a decreasing HIV replication, but this hypothesis could not be proved. A HERS-publication in 2009 reported that HAART was associated with increased HPV clearance, but not with a decline of Papanicolaou test abnormalities.

The Facial Nerve: An Update on Clinical and Basic Neuroscience Research: E. Stennert, O.

I: Invited lectures. – Anatomy. – Comparative anatomy of the central representation of the facial nerve. – The facial nerve – Peripheral and central connections of proprioception. – Facial nerve fiber orientation, linkage between central nervous organization and muscular function. – Changing ratio between myelin thickness and axon caliber in developing human facial nerves. – The denervated muscle. – to what extent can poor functional recovery of denervated muscles be attributed to incomplete as opposed to inappropriate reinnervation after surgical repair of severed nerves? . – Morphologic studies on human and rodent facial muscles. – denervation and reservation of muscle: Physiological effects. – Postdenervation muscular changes in facial paralysis. – Effects of electrostimulation therapy: enzyme-histological and myometric changes in the derivated musculature.

– Rehabiliation of facial expression ( “mime therapy” ) . – The injured nerve. – Fine Structure of degeneration and regeneration of peripheral nerve fibers. – regulation of transferrin receptors and iron uptake in normal and injured nervous system. – Clinical experience in nerve grafting. – Prognostic value of electroneurography palsy in Bell’s. – Role of laminin for axonal growth. – Bell’s palsy: Synopsis by at otologist. – Role of oncogenes in neural regeneration. – The facial nucleus and its cellular environment. – The role of microglia in regeneration. – The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the regenerating facial nucleus. – The role of astrocytes in facial nerve regeneration.

– Pathophysiology of hemifacial spasm. – II: Free papers and posters. – Anatomy and the denervated muscle. – Anatomy and histology of the mimic muscles and the facial Supplying and posters nerve. – motor innervation pattern of the orbicularis oris muscle in guinea pig. – Why does the frontal muscle “never come back”? Functional organization of the mimic musculature. – affection of mimic muscles, simulating damage of the facial nerve in patients with muscular faciocapulohumeral dystrophy. – Muscle ultrastuctural changes in long-standing idiopathic facial nerve total palsy. – Comparison of myosin in denervated and Immobilized muscles. – Respiratory-related electromyographic activity of facial muscles. – stimulation of the regeneration process in denervated muscle. – Peripheral communication of the facial nerve at the angle of the mouth.

– Development and reinnervation of rat muscle grafts in inter specific transplantations. – trigeminal facial nerve communication and its clinical application. – Observations on the geniculate ganglion in adult human dissections. – Spatial occupancy of the facial nerve in the fallopian canal. – Funicular structure and nerve fiber topography in the extratemporal facial nerve. – Physical training. – The role of physical therapy in patients with facial paralysis – State of the Art. – Functional recovery and electromyographic / electro euro graphic evaluation in Bell’s and Ramsay Hunt’s palsy patients undergoing physical training. – Treatment of facial paralysis using electromyographic feedback – A case study. – eutrophic electrical stimulation in long-standing facial palsy. – Plastic surgery. – graft hypoglossal-facial anastomosis with gold lid weight. – Individually adjusted curvatures of upper eyelid gold implants: a valuable approach.

– Static suspension of Eyebrow with Gore-Tex Plastic surgery. – temporalis transfer for correction of lagophthalmus. – pectoralis minor transplant in the Netherlands. – An experimental model for complex dynamic control of the reinnervated face. – pectoralis minor muscle graft for the treatment of unilateral facial palsy. – Extended follow-up study of vascularized muscle transplantation for treatment of long-standing facial palsy. – Eye sphincter substitution schemes. – resuscitation schemes for partial facial palsies. – Freeze-thawed skeletal muscle car grafts: experimental evalutation of thesis grafts in facial nerve repair. – facial nerve paralysis: weightlifting gold implants as alternative to tarsorrhaphy. – facial reanimation in facial nerve disorders facial paralysis. – in children and Others. – steroid therapy for facial nerve palsy in children.

– Developmental aspects of the facial canal: A light and scanning electron microscopy of the study. – Vulnerability facial nerve palsy in entraped: Comparative study in guinea pigs and humans. – Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome: report of two cases and review of literature. – Course of the facial nerve in congenital dysplasia of the external auditory canal: A high-resolution computerized tomography study. – Lyme borreliosis – Main cause of acute peripheral facial palsy in childhood. – Dehiscences in the fallopian canal. – Macrodissection study on peripheral facial nerve branches to Stensen’s duct. – grading of facial palsies. – The quantification of synkinesis and facial paralysis. – Development of a sensitive clinical facial grading system. – Development of a new scoring system for paresis pre- and postoperative evaluation of facial paresis. – Prediction of prognosis in facial nerve palsy using constellation diagram. – computer-assisted grading of facial function.

– subjective evaluation of facial function by the patient. – Comparative value of facial nerve grading system. – botulinum toxin. – treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum toxin botulinum toxin. – treatment in patients with facial sykinesis. – botulinum toxin: Structure and pharmacology. – Diagnostic procedures Electrophysiology. – The utility of single-fiber electromyography nerve in facial paralysis. – computer-aided neuromyography with repetitive stimuli for Diagnostis of facial nerve disorders. – Antidromically evoked facial nerve response on guinea pigs with partial nerve injury. – Antidromically evoked facial nerve responses in human subjects: Modification of recording techniques. – Electro Physiological evidence for central hyperexcitability of facial motoneurons in hemifacial spasm. – Prognostic diagnosis of peripheral facial palsy by at impedance method.

– facial nerve antidromic evoked potentials. – infraorbital (V2) and mentally (V3) nerve stimulations produce correspondingly specific facial nerve reflex analogous to the flashing reflex. – Electro Physiologic evaluation of facial nerve: Function after paralysis. – Clinical value of battery electrodiagnostic test. – Diagnostic procedures: Electroneurography. – Electrical evaluation of the facial nerve in acoustic neuroma patients comparing transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroneurography. – The prognostic value of electroneurography in Bell’s palsy. – innervation pattern of the extratemporal ramification of the facial nerve; intraoperative evoked electromyographic study: Second report. – Bell’s palsy and magnetic stimulation: longitudinal study. – Electromyography of evoked activity of the facial nerve in cerebellopontine angle surgery. – Electro Euro Graphic evaluation of facial palsy: Early and late results in 350 patients. – Neuronography in facial palsy-results of long-term observations. – Magnetic stimulation.

– Identification of the exact site stimulated in transcranial magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve. – pre- and postoperative electro physical and magnetic stimulation control of facial nerve function in hemifacial spasm. – Influence of different Electrodes on electric and magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve. – evaluation of peripheral facial palsy by transcranial magnetic stimulation stimulation. – Transcranial magnetic of the facial nerve in small and medium-sized acoustic neurinomas. – Neurophysiological evaluation of Bell’s palsy: Electroneurography and transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients stimulation. – Magnetic with essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. – blink reflex investigation using magnetic stimulation. – facial nerve lesions: tumor, trauma. – Progressive facial palsy and neurinomas of the VIIth nerve. – Two cases of facial intratemporal neurofibroma. – facial nerve neuro omas: Diagnosis and management of the large lesion. – end-to-end anastomosis versus nerve graft in intratemporal and intracranial lesions of the facial nerve facial nerve.

– Primary tumors: Diagnostic and management dilemmas. – Gunshot injuries to the intratemporal facial nerve. – Microsurgical selective removal of benign neoplasms of the parotid gland. – Peripheral facial nerve paresis as the initial presenting manifestation of tumors of unknown origin. – facial nerve neurinoma nad otologic signs. – facial paralysis induced by tumors. – The facial nerve in congenital ear malformations. – management of traumatic facial nerve paralysis with carotid artery cavernous sinus fistula. – facial nerve neuroma. – The acoustic trauma in decompression surgery of facial nerve. – Recovery of total facial palsy after neuroma facial nerve surgery. – monitoring. – Intraoperative NIM-2 ™ monitoring for facial nerve preservation in acoustic neurinoma surgery.

– facial nerve monitoring of skull base and cerebello-pontine angle lesions . . – Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring by monopolar low constant current stimulation and postoperative facial function in acoustic tumor surgery. – Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in the infratemporal fossa approach: Improved preservation of nerve function. – Electrical stylomastoidal and magnetic transcranial stimulation of the facial nerve in Bell’s palsy: Time course of electro physiological parameters. – facial nerve imaging. – gadolinium-DTPA -enhaneed MRI of the facial nerve. – gadolinium-enhanced MRI and positron emission tomography in Bell’s palsy: A preliminary report. – Correlation between gadolinium-enhanced MRI and neurophysiology palsy in Bell’s: A preliminary study. – gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced MRI in facial palsy. – Correlation of MRI, clinical, and electroneuronographic findings in the natural course of acute facial nerve spasm palsies. – Hemifacial: evaluation and management options. – Idiopathic facial nerve palsy (Bell’s palsy): Morphological changes in MRI.

– Contrast- enhanced MRI of the facial nerve in patients with Bell’s palsy. – gadolinium-enhanced MRI in experimental facial nerve paralysis. – Preoperative radiologic assessment of facial nerve in cochlear implant surgery. – gadolinium-enhanced MRI in Bell’s palsy. – Hemifacial spasm Caused by posterior inferior cerebellar artery elongation – diagnostic value of angiomagnetic resonance imaging. – Computerized tomography demonstration of labyrinthine facial nerve decompression viability by the transattical approach. – Depiction of affected facial nerve with Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI. – Idiopathic facial nerve palsy (Bell’s palsy): Morphological changes in MRI. – high-resolution computed tomography imaging of the facial nerve canal in the temporal bone fractures. – facial palsy due to intracranial vascular lesion. – imaging in the differential diagnosis of facial paralysis. – value of MRI and intraoperative frozen sections in -defining the extent of facial neurinoma. – Topographical anatomy of the facial nerve.

– X-ray symptomatology of the facial canal involvement in chronic otitis. – Surgical techniques. – Clinical investigation of hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis. – Salvage decompression of the facial nerve . – Is facial nerve decompression surgery effective? . – Surgical treatment of synkinesis. – parotidectomy with the nerve integrity monitor II. – anastomosis of infratemporal facial nerve with fibrin tissue adhesive. – treatment of facial paralysis in humans by neural methods. – facial reanimation by XII to VII nerve anastomosis after surgery on the VIII nerve. – rehabilitation after hypoglossal-facial crossover. – Development of the nerve conduction velocity after hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis: at electroneurographie study.

– The “babysitter” principle: Experience and results in 25 cases. – trigeminal neoneurotization of the paralyzed facial musculature. – Surgical repair of the facial nerve at the base of the skull: The mastoid-parotid approach. – Microvascular decompression by the retromastoid apporach for idiopathic hemifacial spasm: Experience of 300 patients. – Endoscopic anatomy of the facial nerve and related structures. – facial nerve research: New Approaches and results. – expression and regulation of neuropeptides in rat facial motoneurons. – Human facial nucleus: Choline Acetyl and calcitonin gene-related peptide. – nerve growth factor: Morphological and morphometric findings of facial nerve regeneration in the rabbit. – observation of motor neurons after recovery from experimental facial nerve paralysis. – Extracellular matrix arrangements of rat facial nerve. – Best method for facial nerve anastomosis. – An animal model of ischemic facial palsy.

– experimental studies on antidromic evoked potential of the facial nerve. – Function-dependent expression of calcitonin gene related peptide in neuromuscular junctions of the facial muscles. – Ultracytological localization of K + -dependent, p-nitrophenylphosphatase activity in cat facial nerve. – degeneration and regeneration of neuromuscular junction in guinea pig mimic muscle – A scanning electron microscopic study. – nerve growth factor: Optic and ultra structural findings on facial nerve degeneration in the rabbit. – stereo Logical estimation of the volume and neuron number of the facial and hypoglossal nucleus of the rat. – Effects of motor neuron disorders on feeding behavior of sturgeons, inhabiting the volga river. – Detection of varicella zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction in clinical samples from patients with Hunt’s syndrome. – stereo Logical evaluation of neuronal plasticity in rat brainstem after hypoglossal -facial anastomosis. – Role of opioid peptides and substance P in the regeneration of CNS and PNS nervous tissue. – reinnervation of rat vibrissae after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis: A horseradish peroxidase study. – Biomaterials used in nerve regeneration chambers as substrata for spinal cord neurons cultured in fibrin sealant vitro. – (Tissucol) as a substratum for spinal cord neurons cultured in vitro.

– facial nerve regeneration through semipermeable porous chambers. – Comparison of rabbit facial nerve regeneration in nerve growth factor-containing tubes to silistic autologous cable grafts. – carbon dioxide laser repair of the facial nerve: An experimental study in the rat. – A new animal model of facial nerve palsy using a freezing method. – Immunology. – Etiopathogenesis of Bell’s palsy: An immune-mediated T theory. – -Lymphocyte subpopulations and HLA-DR antigens in patients with Bell’s palsy, hearing loss, neuronitis vestibular and Meniere’s disease. – Electro Physiologic pattern and T-cell subsets in Bell’s palsy. – Immunological findings in Bell’s palsy. – Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in Bell’s palsy in a metropolitan area of ​​northern Italy. – anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in sera of patients with facial paralysis. – Macrophages and Schwann cells in myelin disintegration. – Incidence of peripheral facial palsy in patients with antibodies against Lyme Borreliosis.

– Blood supply. – Reaction of the vasa nervorum of the facial nerve during stimulation with neurotransmitters. – Morphological changes in ischemic facial nerve paralysis. – Activation of intravascular coagulation in Bell’s palsy. – retinal videofluorescence-angiographic findings in Bell’s palsy. – evaluation of total and perfused blood vessels in the facial nerve. – viral involvement. – virus isolation study of the human ganglion geniculate (nerve VII) . – virus-associated demyelination in the pathogenesis of Bell’s palsy. – histopathology of facial nerve neuritis Caused by herpes simplex virus infection in mice . – herpes simplex virus and experimental facial paralysis. – Recent treatment of Ramsay Hunt syndrome. – herpes zoster of the geniculate ganglion: Therapeutic concepts.

– acyclovir versus steroids in the treatment of Bell’s palsy palsy. – facial and human immunodeficiency virus infection. – antibody response against the Epstein-Barr virus in acute idiopathic facial palsy. – Lower brainstem changes in herpes oticus with facial palsy. – facial nerve paralysis induced by herpes simplex virus infection in mice. – Ramsay Hunt syndrome: Natural history. – Evidence Suggesting the viral etiology of Bell’s Bell’s palsy and palsy. – others. – management of Bell’s palsy Accompanied by diabetes mellitus. – Long-term results of severe facial paralysis. – distribution of facial nerve conduction velocities in patients with Bell’s palsy. – Tertiary syphilis with facial paralysis. – Recurrent facial paralysis associated with HIV infection.

– Bilateral facial palsy in Wegener’s granulomatosis. – facial palsy in Equatorial Africa. – regeneration of irradiated rat skeletal muscle after damage under different experimental conditions. – Age characteristics of reinnervation of skeletal muscle grafts . – Prediction of surgical criteria for Bell’s palsy on the fifth day of evolution. – Therapeutic policy for Bell’s palsy and Hunt syndrome. – Stellate ganglion block for facial palsy. – Treatment comparison between dexamethasone and placebo for idiopathic facial palsy. – Emotions in the first 99 days after the onset of facial paralysis: A single case study. – facial paralysis in children. – evaluation of facial palsy by moiré topography. – Bell’s palsy steroid therapy in chosen cases. – result of high-dose steroid therapy (Stennert) in facial palsy.

– Natural history of Bell’s palsy. – The facial nerve nucleus. – Central and peripheral rearrangements Following hypoglossal-facial crossover: An electro physiological study. – recovery of normal excitability of the facial motor nucleus Following facial nerve decompression in hemifacial spasm. – Astroglial response in facial and hypoglossal nucleus after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis in the rat. – synaptic stripping in facial and hypoglossal nucleus after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis in the rat. – response of Nissl substance in the facial and hypoglossal nucleus after hypoglossal-facial anastomosis in the New rat. – “perineural cells” in the compartmentation of the regenerated nerves. – Somatotopic changes of the muscle stylohyoid subnucleus after section and repair of the facial nerve. – Axotomy of the facial nerve not only induces changes in the facial nucleus but so in remotely related brain regions. – to: Bell’s palsy and others. – Peripheral facial paralysis: evaluation of effects in a case-study.