In recent years there has been on the German market by the Koi Herpes Virus (KHV) high losses of koi carp and other species of Cyprinius carpio. Because our welfare and our especially your animals at heart, we would like to inform on the subject. What is the KHV? The virus belongs to the herpes virus. This type of similar DNA particles in 1998 first discovered in the United States under the electron microscope. The virus was also grown and subsequently characterized there. The virus infects only (! ) Cyprinius carpio, so far no other fish. Based on current information other fish species can the virus also not forward. KHV is manifested in a certain temperature range between 17-28 ° C. At higher and at lower temperatures the virus is usually inactive, the fish are then still latently infected. Detection was at the outbreak of 1998 still on the culturing of the virus in koi fin (KF-1) cells. Meanwhile manage these growing the virus only in the rarest cases.
Proof is now by the PCR method (polymerase chain reaction), whereby DNA fragments of the virus be detected by molecular biology, in combination with the clinical picture. How KHV transmitted? KHV spreads fish into or over the water. It is extremely (! ! ! ) contagious: A splash of water, a wet landing net or meet a damp hand to get it to spread. How to recognize KHV? The incubation period can last for several weeks, it depends on water temperature and stress factors. There are various symptoms, which, however, can each also occur with bacterial infections for themselves. Therefore, please do not break directly into panic if your Koi one of the symptoms comprises. Our trained staff can assist in the diagnosis. symptoms:
extreme emaciation within 2-3 days, although the fish eat more sunken, deep-set eyes, possibly Glotzaugen partly strong slime formation on the skin. It then comes to a massive mucosal detachment – the fish feel itself like sandpaper partly strongly slimy gills, Kiemennekrose extremely high losses, up to 90% within a few days If several symptoms at the same time and above all, the disease spreads rapidly around, then there is probably a KHV outbreak. How you can protect your Koi before KHV? Buy Koi only in specialized shops! Our animals are examined multiple relevant veterinary, through a long quarantine period at the supplier and will be held here in the first few weeks in separate tanks Put newcomers in quarantine, at least for 14 days Pay attention to strict hygiene What do if KHV has erupted?
Unfortunately, the Koi Herpes Virus is incurable. It is very likely that all koi pond located in depressed after a short time. Therefore, the fish must be killed unfortunately. Survivors Koi are most likely their lives can infect other Koi long. Get advice from an expert. Our knowledgeable staff will gladly assist you and refer you to a specialist. Disinfect then all objects, such as pools, tanks, filters, pumps, nets – everything is somehow come with koi or water from the plant into contact. Just so you prevent infection of new fish. Important NOTE! To avoid infection, the infected animals should not be transported. Especially not in the vicinity of healthy Koi (as the dealer). First, contact a specialist on before you proceed to the disease. Is there KHV-resistant Koi?
It is alleged that they exist. Supposedly the virus bzw. die symptoms above 30 ° C “disappear” and not break out again. These are as NIF (natural immunized fish) or NR (natural resistant) designated Koi no other more can infect. Apart from some pseudo-scientific publications there is to it but no scientifically sound studies or even evidence. In particular, the assertion NIF’s or NR’s could not infect other Koi more, is extremely critical to evaluate. 1. Be careful when shopping! We buy only from approved suppliers. All suppliers undergo a strict examination procedure (see point 2) before buying large quantities there. The different origins are not mixed. 2. We only buy from suppliers who carry themselves PCR tests
Because there is no mercy: Who does not want to test his Koi locally or can come to us as a supplier of the question! 3. Each koi delivery is examined with us on KHV! All incoming with us koi deliveries from a German university institute random means of scientifically recognized molekularbiologsichen PCR method (polymerase chain reaction) examined for KHV. The results are available within a few days. 4. Strict quarantine! Any new incoming koi delivery is for 14 days at “critical temperature outbreak” – held in quarantine – ie around 20 ° C. All pools are equipped with individual filtering and UV. Each basin has its own net. Quarantine and sales facilities are in different buildings. The staff of the quarantine facilities has not admitted to the auction system.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The koi herpes virus is through the koi herpesvirus (KHV) disease caused like, acute to subacute extending viral disease of carp and koi carp. It is since the end of 2005 in Germany a compulsorily notifiable disease. The incubation period is a function of various factors such as stress and the particular condition of the fish, from one week to several months. If it comes to the outbreak of the disease, the mortality rate is usually between 80% and 100% in a period of 24 hours to 14 days. pathogen The Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has been described by Hedrick Ron of the University of California, Davis as a herpes virus in the 2000th It is not yet known if this virus with the herpes virus cyprini, which was described in 1990 in Japan, is identical. is classified the Koi herpes virus as a DNA virus of the virus group Herpesviridae (herpes viruses). For the first time occurred and described the virus in 1998 in Israel. The pathogen is found in Koi and Nutzkarpfen. Other non-cognate cyprinids as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) or Goldkarausche (Carassius auratus) seem to stay by the virus is not always affected. Secured this information is in that KHV has been demonstrated in goldfish and they, if they do not become ill, act as intermediaries. What is certain is that the virus only infects carp fish.
transmission Like most viruses, including the Koi herpes virus is transmitted by direct contact. This can be even through the skin and gill excretions, water or other liquids have been in contact with infected fish the fish. The handling in the water with your hands, or working with objects such as landing nets or nets or contact with the footwear are already sufficient to transmit the virus. Waterfowl can also bring the virus into the water, even though the virus does not survive more than two hours outside of its habitat. Without a carp as a host the virus survived up to 14 days in the water. In most cases, the virus is carried over by new additions of fish in the stock. disease The disease course is rather nonspecific and many of the symptoms that occur are masked by other diseases or occur as a secondary infection in appearance, do not permit the conclusion to KHV infection. Among these are especially poor water values (ammonia, oxygen deficiency, overfeeding or poorly functioning filter systems) to call but also bacterial diseases that you can bring in to the pond. However, in the temperature range between 18 ° C and 25 ° C, the highest loss rates are observed. The onset of the disease is possible even at 8 ° C. Accordingly, the virus must have adapted to European standards according to the findings of the latest research.
At temperatures above 30 ° C and 4 ° C (in vitro conditions) does not seem to be infectious the koi herpesvirus. The disease is also influenced decisively by other environmental and management conditions (water quality, stocking density, stress). The clinical picture includes the following symptoms: apathy Secretion from the flock increased mucus formation Rag-like mucus detachment Gasping at the surface Necrosis on the gills (white or red spots) Necrosis and hemorrhages in the skin Fressunlust or feed refusal sunken eyes be upside down
color loss rough skin (sandpaper effect) Bleeding in and on organs Necrosis in organs swollen spleen altered kidney Pathologically the koi herpes virus by interstitial nephritis, inclusion in gill or gut, beamforming on the gills, giant cell formation and an altered blood picture is marked. diagnosis The pathogen can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or LAMP test (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) (see koi herpesvirus detection). quarantine Quarantined have disease-suspicious and freshly imported animals. This also applies to conditionally weak animals. With valuable animals the ponds with nets must be secured against bird flight.
Additions are for at least 14 days to set at least 20 ° C separately, ideally in different temperature ranges and a duration of about four weeks. after two weeks there are no recognizable symptoms should be at least a Koi, better two, to be implemented from the existing pond to Neuzukauf to quarantine. The introduction of new items in the older parts must be avoided under all circumstances. Embarrassing hygiene in relation to equipment and people can counter well contamination Koipopulation. It is strongly recommended that Kois derived from KHV known areas such as China, Israel, Japan or Thailand prior to introduction in Koi ponds for the above-mentioned Time must be kept in quarantine. Buyers should only retailers acquire animals that can examine their Kois by PCR analysis, proof of negative test results from a recognized veterinary institution can demonstrate and have an appropriate quarantine facility. For merchants that do not provide this proof, it should not be a purchase. Also mixing of animals of different origin areas should be avoided. The acquisition of so-called immunized (not to be confused with vaccinated! ) Animals should be considered critical because these animals can carry the pathogen latently infected and healthy stocks so again. Such fish are the introduction of a real vaccine (S. U. ), since around 2006, anyway no longer commercially available.
KHV can be very contagious. A contaminated water splashes can be enough to jeopardize the entire inventory. treatment Treatment with potentially recoverable not at the present time. Infected animals can with a temperature increase of more than 30 ° C over a period of about 30 days so treated (immunized) are that they can live with the virus. However, these animals, if they survive, to vectors (carriers). These carriers can then at any time bring contagious viruses in circulation, which are not immunized animals infected and can kill. If the disease has broken out culled under circumstances, the entire contents and the pond to be drained. Then an intense Desinfizierungsbehandlung should be. After R. Hoffmann (Institute of Zoology, Fisheries \x26amp; Fish diseases d. LMU München) are immunizing action against herpes viruses in animal husbandry in general of particular problems, because you have to do it with the herpes virus infected animals with lifelong carriers of the virus. Therefore, the vaccination of healthy animals could lead to a vaccination, however, does not guarantee that the vaccinated animal is not even in contact with the herpes virus to unrecognized virus carriers.
therefore herpesvirus vaccines are not capable of eliminating the disease from livestock. Especially the carriers (ie healthy virus carriers) is that in the course of their lives leaving us, after his observation repeatedly viruses and so far could not infect infected animals were. This view preclude currently opposite experience from Israel, which survived a serious epidemic with extreme losses and protected by Vaccine carp production has been successfully re. The vaccinated animals ill not, the not yet infected Koi seriously ill and dies in most cases. Despite claims has not been demonstrated that the above-mentioned vaccine ever transmitted field virus vaccinated fish. Web Links Koi herpesvirus evidence in Niedersachsen This article addresses a health topic. He is not the self-diagnosis and does not replace medical diagnosis. Please this following these instructions on health issues! Retrieved from “https://de. wikipedia. org/w/index.
Current Event: In an ornamental fish wholesaler in southern Germany in early May 2007, the outbreak of infection with the koi herpesvirus (KHV) was diagnosed with koi carp. Even in pet shops in Baden-Württemberg, which had been supplied by the trader concerned, the koi herpes virus was detected in dead ornamental fish. The KHV is highly contagious for Nutzkarpfen and can lead to high losses in the carp farming. To prevent spread of the disease to the Nutzkarpfenbestände and the wild carp population in Baden-Württemberg is to be noted in this leaflet on the danger of disease and on protective measures to prevent the introduction of epizootic diseases. The KHV poses no threat to humans. Danger: The Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is for Koi carp and Nutzkarpfen (Cyprinus carpio) highly contagious virus that the so-called. Causes “Koi disease. ” The disease first emerged in 1997 koi in Israel, USA and Europe and has now spread worldwide. in Germany occurred in recent years in Koi and Nutzkarpfenbeständen and in wild carp populations losses by KHV on. The KHV infection is a notifiable animal disease. KHV infection (= “Koi disease”)
Exciter. Koi herpesvirus Susceptible species: With Koi Carp (Koi) and Nutzkarpfen occur symptoms and losses; Goldfish can be experimentally infected but show no symptoms. Likewise, grass carp, crucian carp and tench can possibly be virus carriers. Symptoms: lethargy, anorexia, shortness of breath, sunken eyes, skin changes (abschleimen, skin feels like sandpaper); Change the gills (pallor / redness, swelling, necrosis); the internal organs are usually normal. History: The “koi disease” occurs mainly in water temperatures above 18 “C, but there are also outbreaks at lower water temperatures described. The incubation period (interval between infection and onset of the disease) is between 7 to 21 days (depending on the water temperature). The disease is disease-way; Losses up to 100% of the stock are possible. Diagnosis: The diagnosis is made by various PCR testing (polymerase Chain Reaction). In latently infected fish that show no signs of disease, the detection of infection is difficult. Therefore need to be investigated for the safe detection of possibly multiple samples and multiple organs (gills, brain, head kidney, spleen). General whole fish with disease symptoms are (live or freshly dead) best suited for diagnosis.
The KHV infection can be introduced into a carp stock: – Directly, via Koi and Nutzkarpfen or Carrier fish (. Eg goldfish) – Indirectly: through contaminated equipment (nets, landing nets, transport containers, etc. ), via contaminated water, or by persons or their protective clothing (. Eg boots) The purchase of infected Koi and Nutzkarpfen carries the highest risk of infection! Fish that have survived the disease, remain infected for life and are potential KHV carriers (Carrier fish). Protection: In Baden-Württemberg the Koi herpes virus has been detected only in stocks with koi fish and a wild waters. The record carp producers in the country have been studied for several years by the Fish Health Service (FGD) regularly KHV. However, there is evidence that in other states also individual carp economies of KHV are affected.
To protect the carp farms in Baden-Württemberg, the affected Zierfisch actions are currently being amplified by the veterinary offices and reviewed by the fish health service. In the event that KHV is detected, the suspect or diseased fish may not be sold; dead fish must be destroyed. The safest protection provides compliance with the following biosecurity measures: • To protect against the introduction of Nutzkarpfenbestände Koi herpesvirus, no koi should be introduced into the stock. • The water from koi conversations should not be introduced to the wild. • It is pointed out expressly that ornamental fish should not be exposed to the wild / Carp conversations. Generally, only the fishing rights fish may suspend in water. • holders of Koi and Nutzkarpfen are invited to step up to watch their fish and in case of doubt, after the care veterinarian was called in to be examined in the investigation offices. • It is recommended to set fish relates only from establishments which are regularly clinically and virologically studied from FGD negative for KHV. • The following pond disinfection measures are suitable for controlling the koi herpes virus: drying with UV exposure (sunlight) or chemical disinfection with a suitable disinfectant. After Tierseuchengesetz can be imposed on anyone who a notifiable disease spread among animals (intentionally or negligently). With questions or reports of specific incidents, please contact the competent veterinary authority or the fish health service (FGD). FGD Stuttgart on Chem u vet Investigation Office Stuttgart-Fellbach, Tel:.
. 0711 / 3426-1729 FGD Karlsruhe on Chem. U. Vet Investigation Office Karlsruhe branch office Heidelberg, 06221 / 506-0 FGD Freiburg am Chem u vet Investigation Office Freiburg, Tel:. . 0761 / 1502-0 FGD Aulendorf Veterinary at the National Investigation Office – Diagnostic Centre – Aulendorf, Tel: 07525-942-0
Although KHV infections are notifiable for some years and infected fish are isolated and abgetÃ¶tet need, the disease is still not as lÃ¤ngst defeated. And the rampant KHV virus remains the specter No. 1 among Koi lovers. Koi can infect all mÃ¶glichen parasites and get fish diseases, like all other carp also. but particularly gefÃ¼rchtet is (briefly called KHV) in all Koi lovers the HÃ¶chst infektiÃ¶se, rampant among carp and Koi Koi herpesvirus. The scientifically correct name is Carp Nephritis and Gill Necorsis Vitus CNGV or cyprinid herpesvirus 3-CyHV. 3 Depending on the general condition of the Koi and the respective environmental conditions such as stress, nutrition and water quality, the first symptoms show after only one week or after several months. After the outbreak of the disease kills up to 100% of the infected fish within 14 days, many within the first 24 hours. Since this virus infection fatally verlÃ¤uft in most cases, is highly contagious and still not be cured, it is infected Koi as soon as possible to isolate from the Ã¼brigen colored carp. To a serious illness, the KHV virus apparently seems to lead but only for Koi and held in ponds Nutzkarpfen. Although other species of the carp family (Cyprinidae) as crucian carp, grass carp and goldfish can play a role as ÃœbertrÃ¤ger play, but suffer not themselves. is Ãœbertragen the virus from fish to fish by direct skin contact, but also by precipitates in the water.
Even when handling the Koibesitzers with Nets, boots or over the hands, the virus can be passed already. But over WasservÃ¶gel, especially cormorants, can the virus from pond to pond procrastinate. Most the KHV virus but about arrives already infected recruits of Koi in your own fish stock. However, these viruses days remain outside their host no longer than 14 lebensfÃ¤hig and without water they already go basis after 2 hours. But who is the causative agent, how can you diagnose him and â € “most importantly â €” what can with KV-infected Koi as early as possible recognize? In 2000, the herpes virus of the American Ron Hedrick described. A herpes cyprini but was only 10 years previously discovered in Japan. Whether it is the same Koi herpes virus in both cases, could not be geklÃ¤rt certainly until today, although in 2007 the complete DNA of infected animals could be sequenced in Japan. First Koi herpes infections occurred in Germany in 1997 on a year later also in Israel. Since 2005 infections KHV are notifiable in. Among the symptoms are the property auffÃ¤lligsten necrotic VerÃ¤nderungen the gills â € “dies the gill tissue, then there is a danger to life! But are also affected a distended stomach â € “much like in InfektiÃ¶sen ascites (IBW), from the carp in special Dimensions. Or GeschwÃ¼re that break after Exterior facilities through the skin.
Other first marking a KHV infection can frayed FlossenrÃ¤nder or a roughened skin be. A definitive diagnosis is only by means of laboratory tests possible, on the one hand by a Polyymerasekettenreaktion (PCR), the other by the so-called LAMP test (Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification), wherein sufficient already within 2 hours of a color reaction with are safety digestion effort did a KHV infection. Meanwhile, most veterinary practices and clinics are set out durchzufÃ¼hren this LAMP rapid test. However, a negative test result (color absence of envelope) does not close a KHV infection of 100% -ziger security. Therefore, in addition must be a pathological examination of dead fish by taking tissue samples from affected perhaps organs such as kidney, liver and brain. The best possibility of a KHV epidemic in their own koi inventory prevent is to keep the fish in the eye, observed repeatedly during FÃ¼ttern just and herauszufangen verhaltensauffÃ¤llige fish or fish with first kÃ¶rperlichen symptoms in time and separate into a QuarantÃ¤nebecken set. And if Koi swim or FÃ¼ttern show VerhaltensauffÃ¤lligkeiten and factors such as lack of oxygen, high water temperatures and other negative Milieufakotren are auszuschlieÃŸen, one should in doubt once too much a professional fetch help. On the Internet is listed under http://koklan. de/CONTENT/kontakt_tieraerzte/ a list of veterinarians who are familiar with KHV and other fish diseases. An initial consultation with a general examination of the fish will be penalized with an average of around 15â,¬ in EilfÃ¤llen it can cost more than twice or three times. That should be worth but a real Koi lovers, namely regardless of whether his Koi have now only cost 20â,¬ or several hundred euros. For additional information about symptoms and course of these and other koi diseases have the most active Koi lovers in the Lower Rhine, short KLAN, published on its website www. koiklan.
de. The induced KHV virus infection is still considered incurable. And the few Koi, who survived an infection, can still be ÃœbertrÃ¤ger the disease. In Israel but also a vaccine against KHV was developed recently; but this is not considered 100% safe tens; also vaccinated Koi it has come to develop the disease. Up to a certain degree but also the health and resilience of fish plays a role. Stress-free and reared under optimum environmental conditions Koi are less prone. And finally, one should not forget that Koi are not immune beside the dreaded rightly Koi herpes infection of other fish diseases and parasites, and are curable in most cases. Useful reading AHRENS, W. (2007): Beware of new fish. New to Koiherpesvirus KHV) . – . – in a garden pond Special edition No.
17: Koi and Koiteiche. – (DÃ¤hne Verlag, Ettlingen), S. 24-27. O. A. (2006): KHV now notifiable Tierseuche. – in a garden pond â € “The Water Garden magazine (DÃ¤hne Verlag, Ettlingen) 3/2006, p. 6. O. A. (2010): No end in sight! The Koi herpes virus at risk still our BestÃ¤nde. – in a garden pond Special edition No.
17: Asian garden ponds. (DÃ¤hne Verlag, Ettlingen), S. 56-57.