INTRODUCTION

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INTRODUCTION Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by Herpesvirus varicellae virus, which is equal to that of herpes zoster, and primarily affects the skin and mucosa of the mouth and throat. It is considered a childhood disease, because although babies are born with an immunity conferred by their mother, it disappears in the first year of life and the child can acquire the disease by direct infection. The disease has an incubation period of 14 to 16 days before symptoms appear, and both children and adults can spread the virus to each other; when the virus affects adults can cause hives. Outbreaks of chickenpox are strongest during the fall and winter, and it seems that occur in cycles of three to four years. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions or, most often through droplets of saliva of people affected, mostly in the period in which they have not yet manifested symptoms. The secretions of the skin lesions can spread the virus until completely dry. Moreover, indirect transmission through healthy carriers or objects is very rare. SYMPTOMS AND DEVELOPMENT The first symptoms are malaise, headache, slight rise in temperature, loss of appetite and sometimes a skin rash, reddish color, which disappears quickly. From 24 to 36 hours following the rash, which is usually mild in children appears, but appears much more intensity among adults. At first the spots appear in the mouth and throat, which quickly burst, causing pain and irritation: later spreads to the chest and face and sometimes the limbs. The spot begins as a point that ignites at the five or six hours, forming a vesicle filled with a clear liquid, which abounds viruses.

This stain is transformed to form a pustule, and finally a scab. The eruptions are developed over one or two days, in which the patient feels irritated and has high temperature up to 38 ° C. The intensity of the eruption varies, so while some children have very few spots, others may have a large number of them. Once formed scabs, lesions itchy welts that can last until the injury disappears after one to two weeks when the skin heals completely. Adults who get chickenpox, often have similar flu symptoms for a few days before the rash appears, and also that children take longer to recover. People suffering chickenpox should stay home. It is imperative that children keep bed, though some prefer. COMPLICATIONS Although there are very few risks associated with chickenpox cases occur in children who ingested steroid medications or suffer some other disease such as leukemia, which, if infected, may develop chickenpox extremely serious, which can be fatal . Another possible result, but very rare, is encephalitis or inflammation of the brain, which occurs when the virus affects the nervous system the virus affects the nervous system and can occur between the fourth and tenth day since the outbreak; this disease require hospitalization, as the utmost gravity. The most common complications derived from skin lesions, which can become infected and produce a yellowish pus; Also, injuries near the eyes can lead to an infectious conjunctivitis which is treated with antibiotics. Case apart are newborns whose mother suffers chickenpox few days after birth, and who are at high risk of contracting a severe form of the disease. Although chickenpox confers permanent immunity after having passed, some people, especially the elderly or debilitated, may suffer repeated attacks of herpes zoster virus reactivation.

TREATMENT There is no specific treatment against this virus, so it should be expected that the disease follows a normal course. Headaches or throat can be treated with analgesics, such as paracetamol, and itching caused by eruptions can be relieved by applying soothing calamine lotion, which has refreshing and softening properties. To reduce irritation antihistamines can also be applied, the doctor should advise, and fever, especially among adults, is lowered with aspirin or antipyretics. Children should not attend school for at least a week since the outbreak to relieve infections, although this measure should always be consulted with the doctor. After ten days or two weeks injuries have healed completely, even if they had been scratched or torn, the healing process may last longer. It should be noted that if injuries or infected scratch may leave scars. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vaccinating all children who have not given them the disease between 12 and 18 months of age. Older children should be immunized at the first opportunity with a single dose. The 13+ healthy children who have not given them the disease should be immunized with 2 doses in a range of 4 to 8 weeks NEXT HOME INDEX

Introduction

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Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) is a disease caused by a virus classified in the family Herpesviridae. There are five types of herpes viruses possessing natural host as bovine, bovine herpesvirus designated (HBV) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The BHV-1 is serologically related to IBR, IPV (IPV), balanoposthitis (BPI) and non-suppurative encephalomyelitis. It is also associated with ocular symptoms, enteric, neonatal and infectious dermatitis (Gibbs and Rweyemamu, 1977). HBV-1 results in three clinical forms that can occur it simultaneously or separately, these being: respiratory, genital and abortigenic. In either case the economic losses are huge impact on livestock production. The RIB is a worldwide disease, known in the United States since 1954. Argentina was first diagnosed in 1968, but is mentioned since 1959 (Bowes et al, 1970;. Lager et al. , 1981). The virus was first isolated in the country in 1972 (Epstein et al. , 1972). More recent studies (Maliandi et al.

, 1996) indicated that infection with BHV-1 was detected in 97. 68% of the sampled establishments, and the average prevalence of 45. 5% each establishment. Although studies were regional in most cases, all demonstrate the importance of the disease and its high prevalence (Di Santo et al. , 1996; Fort et al. , 1996). The technique of virus neutralization (VN) is for years the reference serological test for the detection of antibodies (AC) (Payment et al. , 1979). Immunofluorescence is a reliable, fast and relatively more sensitive than VN alternative (Payment et al, 1979;. . Assaf et al, 1975) but offers technical difficulties and interpretation errors caused by operator subjectivity. The enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) is used in virology as a replacement for conventional VN, being of similar specificity and superior sensitivity and the indirect ELISA (ELISA-I) and is used for the serodiagnosis of various herpesvirus animals (Galos¡ and al. , 1993; Hohdatsu et al.

, 1986; Dutta et al. , 1983; Nosetto et al. , 1992; Payment et al, 1979). . The aim of this work was to develop an alternative technique to VN for serological diagnosis of RIB, which was reliable, fast and possible to analyze a large number of samples at a reduced cost. Materials and methods Cells and virus: RK 13 cell line (rabbit kidney) was used. The cell cultures were developed with Minimal Essential Medium (MEM, Nissui, Japan) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), antibiotics and 0. 3 mg / ml glutamine (CM). the viral strain Los Angeles BHV-1 [LA, United States – 1956] was used for the preparation of Antigens (Ag) (Gibbs and Rweyemamu, 1977) of title 105. 75 TCID 50% / 0. 05 ml, obtained through the Vetermary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Iowa State University, USA. The cell maintenance was the same as above but free SFB (MSS).

soluble antigen: Complete cell monolayers were inoculated with 0. 5 multiplicity of infection and incubated at 37 ° C with MSS. When generalized cytopathic effect was observed the cells were collected along with the supernatants and centrifuged at 8000 x g for 20 minutes at 4 ° C (refrigerated centrifuge Tomy Seijo RS-20). The ‘pellet’ washed twice with ‘buffer’ TE (0. 01 M Tris, pH 7. 4 NI 0,00I EDTA) and then resuspended in the same ‘buffer’ with the addition of 1% Nonidet P40 ( NP40), in a volume 200 times less than the original supernatant volume MSS. It was centrifuged 4000 x 15 minutes and then at 100,000 g x g for 60 min (Beckman L8-80 ntrífuga Ultrace). The viral supernatant was used as Ag (VFA), and stored at -20 ° C. Using the same methodology starting from Ag Control uninfected cells (AGC) was prepared. Sera: four lots of sera were used: S1) Four positive sera clinical cases of BHV-1 and four negative sera to BHV-1 previously analyzed by VN. All stored in aliquots at -80 ° C. S2) 587 serum samples taken at random from cattle herds. S3) A positive serum and a negative reference BHV-1 obtained through the National lnstitute of Animal Health, Tsukuba, Japan.

S4) positive sera (HSV-1) Heterologous; EHV-1 and EHV-4. All sera were inactivated at 56 ° C for 30 minutes. VN: conventional microplate technique was developed using fixed-serum variable (Assaf et al. , 1975) virus. ELISA-I: Ag (AgV and AgC) were titrated by diluting with buffer 50 mM carbonate-bicarbonate pH = 9. 6 and 0. 1 standing ml of each dilution from the dilution 1: 15, based on two, from column 1 to 12 microplates (Nunc Maxisorb) which were incubated overnight at 4 ° C in a humid chamber, being then blocked for 60 minutes at 37 ° C with 0. 1% ovalbumin or phosphate buffer solution ( PBS) with the addition of 0. 005% Tween 20 (PBST) (IAEA, 1989). The latter solution was also used for washing and as a diluent and conjugate sera. 20, base two, from row A to H, and incubated at 37 ° C for 60 minutes and then subsequently washed three sera group S1, diluted from 1 added. They were washed three times and then the entire plate was incorporated 0. 1ml per well of bovine gamma globulin anti-peroxidase conjugate (EY Laboratories, USA) at 1: 1000 dilution.

The plates were incubated again for 60 minutes at 37 ° C, they washed three times and finally 0. 1 ml was added per well of substrate solution (citric acid 0, 1 M, 0. 2M disodium phosphate, hydrogen peroxide 0. 01% azinodietilbenzotiazol sulfonate (ABTS) ─-Sigma─0,3 mg / ml). The optical density values ​​(OD) obtained using a filter were read of 405 nm in a microplate spectrophotometer (Multiskan Titertek Flow Laboratory, UK) at different time intervals. To determine the upper limit of negativity sera S1 and S3, by facing the optimal dilution of AgV and AgC groups were used. The upper limit of negativity was established according to the parameters set by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, 1989), considering the average OD of negative samples by VN plus a standard deviation [DOXn + 1 SD]. All sera were faced with the AGV DO higher than the values ​​resulting from the abovementioned formula were confronted AGC. To set the cutoff sera S2 and S3 groups were used. Expression cutoff was calculated by two methods. 1. The average OD of the negative population by VN and ELISA plus one standard deviation (DOXn + 1 SD). 2.

The ratio (Cm) between the difference of the OD of the sample (DOM) and the average OD of negative control samples (DOXc), and the difference between the averages of the OD of the weak positive samples (DOXdp) and the average OD of negative control samples (DOXc) (Herdecheck Manual, 1986). cm = Dom – (DO – Xc) (DOXdp) – (DO -Xc) For analysis of the results the S. A. S. ® (Statistical Analysis System) software was used, being the procedures used: chi-square analysis, sensitivity and specificity, Kappa index and the GLM procedure for which a nested experimental design was used. Results and Discussion Indirect ELISA was developed to detect Acs against BHV-1. The use of a soluble Ag prepared with virus infected cells was satisfactory because the virus inactivation was not necessary as the use of NP40 in the process the virions (Hohdatsu et al. , 1986) are destroyed. The Ag reacted specifically with sera positive group S1, a constant determined optimal dilution using 1: 1000, corresponding to 4. 4 ug protein per well.

Dilution 1: 64 sera reduced non-specific background color so we decided to use this dilution for all sera. No positive or unspecific cross reaction with Ag faced S4 sera group was observed. Using PBST as a blocking solution and diluent sera minimized nonspecific color, regarding the use of ovalbumin under the same conditions. Reading time was standardized in 20 minutes and / or OD 1100-1300 the group S3. All sera S3 group whose OJ was more than 725 with the AGV were subsequently faced with the AgC. Given the Cm were considered: negative, Cm = <1; weak positive, Cm between 1 and 1. 3; frank and positive Cm = ≥ 1. 4. The analysis of both statistical methods was significant with p <0. 01 for chi square value of Kappa 0. 872 (Martin et al. , 1997) and p <0. 05 for GLM. The analysis of the results using the formula Cm, had a more homogeneous interpretation. The sensitivity of the technique was 100% and specificity of 84. 79%. (Table 1). TABLE 1 RESULTS ON 587 field sera against the virus HERPESBOVINO-1 VIRUS NEUTRALIZATION AND analyzed by ELISA-1 - VN + VN- Total ELISA + 416 (a) 26 (b) 442 ELISA- 0 (c) 145 (d) 145 Total 416 171 587 Sensitivity = a x 100 / a + c = 100% Specificity = d x 100 / b + d = 84. 79% Our results demonstrate that this ELISA-I is specific for the detection of HBV-Ac 1 and very sensitive for detecting low levels of Ac. When the technique was applied to a large number of samples high sensitivity became apparent. Compared with the VN-I ELISA is less expensive, it consumes less time and could be used to titrate rapidly many sera. References Assaf R . ; Marsolais, G . ; MAROIS, P . ; PAYMENT, P. 1975. Correlation Between the serum neutralization test and the test for the munofluorescent indirect detection of specific antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus. Dog. J. Comp. Medicine 39: 224-226. BOWES, N . ; NISNOVICH, L .

; Morgavi, M. 1979. Experimental reproduction of bovine rhinotracheitis. Veterinary Gaceta 32: 181-186. DI SANTO, M. L . ; SCHETINO, D. M. . ; Gogorza, L. M . ; TORRES, J. O .

; MORÁN, P. E. . ; ARROYO, · h . ; LARGHI, J. L . ; PARDO, D. A. 1996. Bovine Viral Infections: Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) virus and bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) in a herd of dairy and other breeding, Tandil, Argentina. Summary V Argentine Congress of Virology, Tandil, 2427 April 1996. Dutta, S. K .

; TALBOT, N. C . ; Myrup, A. S. 1983. Detection of equine herpesvirus-1 antigen and the specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 1930-1934. EPSTEIN, B . ; GIL TURNES, G .

; Etcheverrigaray, M. E. 1972. Isolation of virus of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and Listeria monocytogenes from a bovine fetus. Veterinary stratum XX: 235. FORT, M. C . ; IBARGUREN, C . ; BUSETTI, M. R . ; ESAIN, F . ; PÉREZ, L. R.

Acs 1996. Prevalence of bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) in the cattle population of two departments of the province of La Pampa. Summary V Argentine Congress of Virology, Tandil, 24-27 April 1996. Galosi, C. M . ; OLIVA, G. A . ; Nosetto, E. O . ; Tohya, Y; Etcheverrigaray, M. E. 1993. Development of an enzyme-linked immunoassay for the diagnosis of indirect Equine Herpes virus type 1.

Rev. Med. Vet. 74: 275-278. Gibbs, E. P. J . ; Rweyemamu, M. M. 1977. Bovine herpesvirus. Part 1. The Veterinary Bulletin 47: 317-332.

HOHDDATSU, T . ; EIKI, T . ; IDE, S . ; YAMAGISHI, H. 1986. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies to equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 48: 1045-1048. LAGER, L; FONDEVILA, N . ; SADIR, A.

M . ; FERNÁNDEZ, F . ; Schudel, A. A. 1981. IBR (BHV-1) 1: Isolation and biological characterization of the etiologic agent (L-L 14). Rev. Med. Vet. 62: 404-410. Maliandi, F. S . ; FERNÁNDEZ, F .

; BARRANDEGUY, M . ; GAMELGARD, M . ; CORVA, S. 1996. Epidemiological Survey on viral infections in dairy cattle. Summary V Argentine Congress of Virology, Tandil, 24-27 April 1996. Manual anti-PRV Herdchek TM ELISA. Agritech Systems inc. , 1986. Manual of ELISA, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) publication, joint FAO / IAEA Division, Vienna, 1989. MARTIN, S . ; MEEK, A. H .

; Willeberg, P. 1997. Veterinary Epidemiology. Principles and Methods, Ed. Acribia. Zaragoza (Spain), 71-85. Nosetto, E. O . ; ECHEVERRÍA, M. G . ; GIMENO, E. J . ; PECORARO, M.

R . ; Etcheverrigaray, M. E. 1992. Development of an indirect and a dot ELISA to detect antibodies to pseudorabies virus in Argentina. Proceedings of a Final Research Coordination Meeting of an FAO / IAEA / AIDS regional network for Latin america animal disease diagnosis on using immunoassay techniques and Labelled DNA probe, IAEA: 58-64. PAYMENT, P . ; Assaf R . ; TRUDEL, M . ; Marois, P. 1979. inmunosorbent enzyme-linked assay for infectious bovine Rhinotracheitis serology of virus infections. J.

Clin. Microbe]. 10: 633-636. SÁNCHEZ VIZCAÍNO, J. M. 1980. Manual on enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) in animal pathology. I. N. I. A. Madrid Spain.

introduction

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Under herpes is meant a viral infection caused by herpes simplex viruses. A distinction is made between cold sores (herpes labialis), Genital Herpes (genital herpes, Shingles (herpes zoster) and herpes encephalitis. The term herpes comes from the Greek and means “creeping”. There are 2 different herpes virus species, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2). Herpes is one of the persistent infections because the virus based live long in the body, and even after a symptomless infection can erupt at any time. Today include genital herpes virus infections of the most common sexually transmitted diseases Species of herpes virus Cold sores (herpes labialis) The most common form of herpes simplex infection is herpes labialis – cold sores. Approximately 40% of the adult population worldwide get once in a lifetime a visible as bubbles infection in the transition area between the skin and vermilion. The small moist, sensitive and itchy sores usually disappear after a short time. What to do about cold sores and help which home remedies, they learn in our cold sore heading.

Genital herpes (genital herpes) Genital herpes (genital herpes) is the most common sexually transmitted diseases and is caused by infection with the HSV-1 or HSV-2 virus, but mainly from the HSV-2. Typical symptoms include painful itchy blisters on the sex organs that are transmitted primarily through sexual contact. An exception is the HSV-1 virus, which is usually transmitted at birth from the mother to the child. What helps against genital herpes and what you can do about genital herpes can be found in our genital herpes Header Shingles (herpes zoster) Under shingles is defined as a caused by herpesviruses striped rash along nerve pathways. Each shingles going on an earlier chickenpox disease. However, after the healing of the infection, the viruses remain in the body, and usually occur in people older than 50 years in times of stress or immune deficiency. Usually the rash starts at the spine and then spreads like a belt around the body. The skin swells, turns red and itchy small bubbles. For more information, please refer to our shingles heading. Encephalitis (herpes encephalitis)


Under a herpes simplex encephalitis is meant an inflammation of the brain, which are caused by herpes simplex virus. Symptoms are flu similar to the beginning, but quickly go into a severe infection on. The person ultimately affects severely ill and shows a psychomotor retardation. However, the annual average of infection is only 0. 4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. For more information about this very serious form of you can find herpes simplex disease in our herpes simplex encephalitis Header Distinguishing HSV-1 and HSV-2 Basically, the two herpesvirus species differ little, sharing approximately 50% of their DNA. Both types infect the mucous membrane of the body, preferably the area at the junction of mucosa to normal skin. Even though the clinical picture does not permit distinctions between HSV-1 and HSV-2, so to show the differences in the frequency of outbreaks. Reactivation rates should be much higher type HSV-2 than HSV-1 according to the study in genital HSV infections. It was further observed that in a previous HSV-1 infection, a HSV-2 primary infections with much milder course.

Herpes simplex virus 1 The HSV-1 virus is transmitted through saliva contact and direct skin contact (contact infection). The outbreak usually occurs on the lips, the face, eyes or genitals. The problem arises when the virus proliferates in the eye, which can lead to blindness (herpes simplex retinitis). In very rare cases, a spread of the herpes virus cause Hinrhautentzündung in the brain, which can lead to death. Herpes simplex virus 2 The HSV-2 virus is transmitted by close contact with mucous membranes, and is generally responsible for genital herpes is transmitted in most cases during intercourse. In newborns it can get through the birth process for so-called konatalen HSV-2 infection. This is a severe disease with a mortality rate of 30%. may be the perfect supplement here through a caesarean delivery, because the infection is in the birth canal. initial infection Most infected people do from the initial infection by the herpes virus often nothing (90%). They show a so-called asymptomatic.

Only Only about 3% – 10% of patients showing typical symptoms of a herpes virus infection, which usually geschiet on damaged skin and mucous membranes. An infection in healthy skin is very rare. reactivation After the initial infection of the herpes virus stays in the cell bodies of the nerve, and remain there for a lifetime. The person concerned is now to remember either virus carriers without it, or it comes to reactivate A renewed outbreak by the reactivation of herpes viruses is done by external factors such Mental stress \x26amp; stress Infections \x26amp; Fever Sunlight \x26amp; UV light Hormonal changes (eg. Ex. Menstruation) Immunodeficiency (minor infection, runny nose, etc .

. . ) The number of outbreaks decreases over the years. One third of all infected suffer a repetitive cold sores. symptoms Typical symptoms of the herpes virus are itchy or burning blisters that usually arise on inflamed skin. After a few days, the content of discolored, cloudy, whereupon crust and dry the blisters. Loading . . . Last update: January 14, 2015 from Herpes-Virus. info