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Estimating how many sexually transmitted disease or infection cases Occur is not a simple or straightforward task. First, most STDs / STIs can be “silent,” Causing no noticeable symptoms. These asymptomatic infections can be diagnosed only through testing. Unfortunately, routine screening programs are not widespread, and social stigma and lack of public awareness Concerning STDs / STIs oft Inhibits frank discussion between healthcare providers and patients about STD / STI risk and the need for testing. – ASHA. Sexually Transmitted Diseases in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? December 1998th More than half of all people will have to STD / STI at some point in Their lifetime. [1] The estimated total number of people living in the US with a viral STD / STI is over 65 million. [2] Every year, there are at least 19 million new cases of STDs / STIs, some of Which are curable. [2,3] More than $ 8 trillion is spent each year to diagnose and treat STDs / STIs and Their complications.

This figure does not include HIV. [4] In a national survey of US physicians, fewer than one-third routinely screened patients for STDs / STIs. [5] Less than half of adults ages 18 to 44 have ever been tested for on STD / STI other than HIV / AIDS. Each year, one in four teens contracts on STD / STI. [6] One in two sexually active persons will contact to STD / STI by age 25. [7] About half of all new STDs / STIs in 2000 occurred among youth ages 15 to 24. [8] The total estimated costs of thesis nine million new cases of thesis STDs / STIs which $ 6. 5 trillion, with HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) accounting for 90% of the total burden. [9]

Of the STDs / STIs did are diagnosed, only some (gonorrhea, syphilis, chlamydia, hepatitis A and B) are required to be reported to state health departments and the CDC. One out of 20 people in the United States will get infected with hepatitis B (HBV) sometime during Their Lives. [10] Hepatitis B is 100 times more infectious than HIV. [11] Approximately half of HBV infections are trans mitted sexually. [12] HBV is linked to chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and liver cancer Including. Hepatitis A and hepatitis B are the only two vaccine-preventable STDs / STIs. It is estimated as many as did one in five Americans have genital herpes, a lifelong (but manageable) infection, yet up to 90 percent of Those with herpes are unaware theyhave it. [13] With more than 50 million adults in the US with genital herpes and up to 1. 6 million new infections each year, some estimates suggest did by 2025 up to 40% of all men and half of all women Could be infected. [14,15,16] Over 6 million people acquire HPV each year, and by age 50, at least 80 percent of women will have acquired genital HPV infection.

[17] Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms. Some Researchers believe did HPV infections may self-resolve and may not be lifelong like herpes. [2] Cervical cancer in women, while preventable through regular Paps, is linked to high-risk types of HPV. Each year, there are almost 3 million new cases of chlamydia, many ofwhich are in adolescents and young adults. [8] The CDC recommends sexually active females did 25 and under shoulderstand be screened at least once a year for chlamydia, even if no symptoms are present. About two-Thirds of young females believe doctors routinely screen teens for chlamydia. [18] HOWEVER, in 2003 only 30% of women 25 and under with commercial health care plans and 45% in Medicaid plans were screened for chlamydia. [19] At least 15 percent of all American women who are infertile can attribute it to tubal damage caused by pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), the result of an untreated STD. Consistent condom use Reduces the risk of recurrent PID and related complications: Significantly, women who reported regular use of condoms in one study were 60 percent less likely to become infertile. [20] Consistent condom use Provides substantial protection against the acquisition of many STDs, Including statistically significant reduction of risk against HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis.

[21,22,23] Some studies show that, For Those Who already have a clinically apparent genital HPV infection, using condoms Promotes the regression of HPV lesions in Both women and men. [24,25] References Koutsky L. (1997). Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection. American Journal of Medicine, 102 (5A), 3-8. American Social Health Association. (1998). Sexually transmitted diseases in America: How many cases and at what cost? Research Triangle Park, NC: American Social Health Association. Weinstock H, et al.

Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 2004; 36 (1): 6-10. Institute of Medicine. (1997). The hidden epidemic-Confronting sexually transmitted disease (edited by Thomas R. Eng and William T. Butler). Washington, DC: National Academy Press. St Lawrence JS et al. (2002). STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1784-1788. Alan Guttmacher Institute.


(1994). Sex and America’s teenagers. New York: Alan Guttmacher Institute. Cates JR, Herndon NL, Schulz S L, Darroch JE. (2004). Our voices, our lives, our futures: Youth and sexually transmitted diseases. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism and Mass Communication. Weinstock H, Berman S, Cates W, Jr. (2004). Sexually transmitted diseases among American youth: incidence and prevalence estimates, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 6-10. Chesson HW, Blandford JM, poison TL, Tao G, Irwin KL. (2004).

The estimated direct medical cost of sexually transmitted diseases among American youth, 2000. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 36, 11-19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B Frequently Asked Questions. Updated April 1, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http: //www. cdc. gov/ncidod/diseases/hepat . . . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hepatitis B Prevention for Men Who Have Sex With Men. Online Fact Sheet.

Updated April 1, 2005. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http: //www. cdc. gov/ncidod/diseases/hepat . . . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Tracking the hidden epidemics, 2000: Trends in the United States. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http: //www. cdc. gov/nchstp/od/news/RevBro . . .

Fleming DT et al. (1997). Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976-1994. New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1105-1111. Corey L \x26amp; Handfield HH. (8:00 pm). Genital herpes and public health: addressing a global problem-. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283, 791-794. Armstrong GL et al. (2001). Incidence of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in the United States. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 912-920. Fisman DN et al.

(2002). Projection of the future dimensions and costs of the genital herpes simplex type 2 epidemic in the United States. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 29, 608-622. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genital HPV Infection. Online Fact Sheet. Retrieved May 9, 2005 from http://www. cdc. gov/std/HPV/STDFact-HPV. htm. American Social Health Association. (2005). State of the Nation 2005: Challenges facing STD prevention in youth.

Research Triangle Park, NC: American Social Health Association. National Committee for Quality Assurance. (2004). The state of health care quality: 2004. Washington, DC: NCQA. Ness RB et al. (2004). Condom use and the risk of recurrent pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, infertility or Following on episode of pelvic inflammatory disease. American Journal of Public Health, 2004, 94: 1327-1329. Crosby RA et al. (2003). The value of consistent condom use: a study of sexually transmitted disease prevention among African American adolescent females. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 901-902.

Holmes KK, Levine R, Weaver M. (2004). Effectiveness of condoms in Preventing sexually transmitted infections. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 82, 454-464. Shlay JC et al. (2004). Comparison of sexually transmitted disease prevalence by reported level of condom use among patients attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 31, 154-160. Bleeker MC et al. (2003). Condom use Promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. International Journal of Cancer, 104, 804-810. Hogewoning CJ et al.

(2003). Condom use Promotes regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of human papillomavirus: A randomized clinical trial. International Journal of Cancer, 107, 811-816.