Viral diseases (Definition, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment)

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Introduction: Definition: the Latin unchanged, viruses (poison), is a very dangerous to humans by a microscopic organism particular reason: it can cause numerous diseases and infections of all kinds. A virus is nothing more than an infectious agent that lives and reproduces inside living cells. They are so tiny that not even look directly with light microscopes and can infect any type of organism, from animals to plants, even bacteria. Have found various types of virus in absolutely all ecosystems on the planet and between biological sets, they are the most abundant. The structure of a virus is very simple. It consists of two or three parts: the genetic material from DNA or RNA, a protective protein layer of these genetic molecules, and occasionally a lipid envelope surrounding the protein when it is outside the cell. Viruses have helical shapes that can vary up to be much more complicated. It is believed that these structures originated DNA fragments which move between cells (plasmids) or in the evolution of some bacteria. The spread of the virus varies depending on the infecting agent. In plants, they are transmitted by insects that feed on the sap. In animals there are several, one common transmission route is through insect bites. Organisms that carry the virus are called vectors.

Another route of transmission is by air. Influenzas usually spread by coughing and sneezing. Fecal and oral routes of transmission modes are most common virus among people and are produced by contact. The virus enters the human body through food and water. There are also sexual propagation paths as the case of HIV. Virus infections in animal organisms produce an immune response that protects and tends to eliminate the pathogen. It can cause an immunity artificially through vaccines that control a specific viral agent. However, there are some viruses that develop mechanisms to evade the immune action such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. It is important to know that antibiotics are only effective in bacteria, not viruses. Many people use them when they have infectious processes without knowing that not only work in vain, but that affect your immune system. Currently scientists are working on the development of antiviral compounds. There are thousands of virus capable of causing a wide range of diseases in humans. For example, viruses cause colds rino-the influenza virus genus produce influenza, adenoviruses are the cause of various respiratory diseases and are responsible for rotavirus gastroenteritis.

The po-poliovirus can make their way to the spinal cord and cause paralysis, while Cocksackie virus and ECHO virus, sometimes invade the heart or the meninges (the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord). Herpes viruses are the cause of cold sores, chickenpox and herpes vaginal, which is a condition transmitted by sexual contact. Other viruses cause a variety of conditions, from measles and mumps to AIDS. Diagnosis The diagnosis of some viral infections such as influenza, the common cold or chicken pox are easy to identify by their symptoms without laboratory tests are needed. For others, such as viral hepatitis, AIDS and infectious mononucleosis, it is usually analyzed a sample of blood for specific antibodies against the virus. The presence of these antibodies confirms the diagnosis. In some cases, viruses can be grown on cell or virus is identified by its nucleic acid, using a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tissues. Tests such as CPR or cell culture are used when antibodies are not accurate enough or when it is necessary to quantify more accurately the invading virus. Treatment Treatment of virus can not fight them with antibiotics, which, however, do serve to destroy bacteria. Luckily, there are a few drugs, such as ribavirin and acyclovir, which can contain the spread of viral invaders without destroying the host cells. The intense search for more effective treatments for AIDS has brought numerous useful antiviral drugs.

Unfortunately, none of them combat viral infections with the antibacterial efficacy. Prevention Hygiene and sanitation: Is the first step in preventing the spread of viruses simply is to practice proper hygiene. That means washing hands frequently, and eating food prepared and cooked properly. It also means the construction and maintenance of facilities for the safe disposal of waste water and for the supply of uncontaminated drinking water. Vaccination: Another important preventive measure is the antiviral immunization. This involves the administration of vaccines that stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies, which are proteins capable of attacking a particular virus. Usually it vaccinate infants and young children against hepatitis B, polio, mumps, measles, rubella (or German measles) and chickenpox. There are also effective vaccines against influenza and hepatitis A. However, vaccines are not effective against all viral diseases. For example, the polio virus, which causes in the past of physical incapacitation of many children, is not very large and relatively stable itself.

So it was possible, in the fifties of the last century, to perfect a vaccine that protects children against this disease (although still occurs in developing countries, where not all children are vaccinated). In contrast, influenza viruses are disrupted, every few years and in a very pronounced each decade, so that the flu vaccine is only valid for a year or two, and then it is necessary to update it. The reason has not been able to find a vaccine against the common cold is the fact that there are no less than hundreds capable of causing rhinovirus colds. To date it has not been possible to develop a vaccine that is effective against all of them. The same applies to HIV, which has so many strains (variants) and so changing that for this and for other reasons has not progressed everything you need to create a vaccine against AIDS. Viral diseases of high impact on public health Argentina hemorrhagic fever viral disease severe acute produced by the Junin virus (Member of the Arenaviridae Family, Genus New World arena, Complex Tacaribe), which was isolated in 1958. It is transmitted by direct contact with rodents or inhalation of excreta of infected rodents. It is limited to the provinces of Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and La Pampa in Argentina. It has an incubation time: 1 to 2 weeks. It has a seasonal pattern, with the highest incidence mainly from March to October. It is more common in males, those aged between 15 and 60 years.

The first symptoms are: Fever Headache Weakness listlessness joint and eye pain Loss of appetite. These symptoms intensify symptoms occur alteration: Vascular Renal hematologic and Neurologic (Shock and seizures) FHA mortality reaches 30%.

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever (FHB) is a zoonotic disease, viral, also known as black typhus. It is produced by the Machupo virus (Member of the Arenaviridae Family, Genus New World arena, Tacaribe Complex), which was isolated in 1959. Link to SLIDE 11 virus Because of its high pathogenicity, Machupo virus requires Biosafety Level Four, the maximum possible. It is transmitted by direct contact with rodents or inhalation of excreta of infected rodents. The virus is transmitted from person to person. It is limited to the Department of Beni, municipalities in the provinces Iténez (Magdalena, Baures and Huacaraje) and Mamore (Puerto Siles, San Joaquin and San Ramon) in Bolivia. Incubation time: 14 days. Síntomsa: Fever Discomfort Headache, muscle and joint

Bleeding, petechiae in the upper body and nose bleeds (Although blood loss is not large, patients often have hypotensive crisis at the 7th day). 30% of patients have neurological conditions, normal cerebrospinal fluid being. headaches myalgia Rachialgia These can be very intense and be accompanied by nausea and vomiting in the early days of the disease and become more evident with mobilization. Alterations in the march are the rule with walking as if drunk, with short, unstable, oscillating steps. The mortality rate is estimated 5-30%. Brazilian hemorrhagic fever Brazilian Hemorrhagic Fever (FHB) caused by Sabia virus (Member of the Arenaviridae Family, Genus New World arena Tacaribe or complex) which was isolated in 1990. It is transmitted by aerosols. Because of its pathogenicity, the Sabia virus requires Biosafety Level Four, the maximum possible. Its distribution is limited so far to the village of Sabia, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Incubation time 7 to 16 days symptoms Fever Red eyes Fatigue dizziness Muscle pain Loss of strength. Severe cases have: hemorrhagic manifestations Shock seizures Coma and death.

Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) caused by the virus Guaranito (Member of the Arenaviridae Family, Genus New World arena or complex Tacaribe), discovered in 1990. In Venezuela, States are considered endemic area Portuguesa, Barinas and Guarico, while states of Apure and Cojedes are considered high-risk areas. Venezuela. Incubation time: 6 to 14 days The FHV is cyclical epidemiological behavior, registering epidemic periods every four to five years. The highest incidence was observed in young adults (15-45 years). symptoms Fever Headache Sore throat Malaise, followed by abdominal pain, diarrhea and bleeding and neurological manifestations. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome

The hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome can be caused by a number of viruses of the Bunyaviridae family, genus Hantavirus, including viruses: Virus Nameless (identified in 1993), Andes virus, Black Lagoon, Corn, Juquitibia virus, among others . The disease is transmitted by inhalation of saliva, urine or feces of infected rodents. The disease has occurred in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, United States, Panama, Paraguay and Uruguay. Early symptoms include Fatigue Fever muscle aches, especially in the thighs, hips, and back. These symptoms are universal. headaches Dizziness Shaking chills Sickness vomiting

Diarrhea and abdominal pain. Four to 10 days after the initial stage of the disease, the symptoms include: Cough severe dyspnea Requiring intensive care. It can cause death. It has a mortality rate of 38%. chikungunya Chikungunya is a virus that is spread by mosquito bites such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus the. symptoms High fever Joint pain Headache and muscle.

Although rarely causes death, joint pain can last for months or years and sometimes become a cause of chronic pain and disability for some people. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available to prevent infection of this virus. The Ebola virus disease is a serious infectious disease that spreads between humans through transmission from person to person. Infection occurs through direct or indirect contact with blood or other body fluids or secretions (feces, urine, saliva, semen) of infected people, only when they have symptoms. Ebola virus is not transmitted through the air. Although the disease usually has a high fatality rate in the current outbreak of Ebola rate is between 55% and 60%. Since it was first detected in 1976 in a village near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo (former Zaire), Ebola outbreaks have occurred in different parts of Africa. Initial symptoms of the Ebola virus disease include: Fever Severe headache muscle pain and joint severe weakness Sore throat

Advanced symptoms are: Diarrhea vomiting Stomach ache unexplained bleeding bruising The disease can also have: renal and liver failure. Maculopapular rash papular. massive internal and external bleeding. St. Louis encephalitis Caused by the virus of St.

Louis encephalitis (ESLV, family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus). Recognized for the first time in 1933. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. His natural cycle is maintained in mosquito-bird-mosquito. It is distributed mainly in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central and South America. Incubation time: 4 to 21 days Síntimodas (less than 1% of cases develop symptoms). Fever Headaches Sickness Signs of infection in the central nervous system, coma and death. West Nile Encephalitis Caused by West Nile virus (ENOV, family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus).

Isolated in 1937. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It can also be transmitted through breast feeding, blood transfusions and transplants. It maintains its natural cycle between birds and mosquitoes. Humans, horses and other mammals may become infected. It is distributed mainly in Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia and North America. Incubation time: 3 to 14 days Symptoms (4 out of 5 people have no symptoms). Fever Headaches Fatigue Nausea vomiting

occasional skin rash with swelling of lymph glands. Severe manifestation presents viral encephalitis with fatal course. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Eastern Equine Encephalitis is caused by the virus of the same name (EEEV, a member of the Family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) which was isolated in 1933. It is a zoonotic viral entity, transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It has a wide geographical distribution: United States, Canada, Caribbean, Central and northern South America Incubation time: 7 to 10 days. Symptoms: Its development occurs suddenly and variable severity. 94% of the cases consists of undifferentiated febrile illness (39 to 40 ° C) yielding in 4 to 5 days. It may be accompanied by intense frontal headache accompanied by prostration General discomfort Weakness

Chill bone pain Myalgia and arthralgia Nausea Threw up Anorexy These signs can progress to a neurological box: Encephalitis Delirium Coma Stiff neck Spasticity of limb muscles Altered reflexes.

It has a high percentage of lethality and in patients who survive a high frequency of permanent neurological sequelae (especially in children under 5 years) as: Mental retardation seizures Paralysis, given the severe brain damage. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis is caused by the virus of the same name (EEVV, member of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus) which was isolated in 1938. It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. It is unique to the Americas. It is distributed mainly in Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad, Venezuela. Incubation time: 2 to 5 days. In the EEV, the development of symptoms occurs suddenly and variable severity. Symptoms: (94% of cases consists of undifferentiated febrile illness (39-40 ° C) yielding 4 to 5 days may be accompanied by intense frontal headache

Prostration General discomfort Weakness Shaking chills bone pain Myalgia and arthralgia Nausea Threw up Anorexy These signs can progress to a neurological box encephalitis (convulsions, altered state of consciousness, disorientation, drowsiness, lethargy, hyperacusis), which appear from the fifth day of illness. In severe cases of encephalitis you can trigger death. Yellow fever Yellow fever is an acute viral disease, jaundice-hemorrhagic, caused by the virus of the same name (FAV, family Flaviviridae, genus flavivirus), which was isolated in 1927.

It is transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. There is a form of sylvatic transmission and other forms of urban transmission. It is distributed mainly in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. Incubation time: 3 to 6 days. symptoms Fever headaches vomiting muscle aches in mild cases. In severe cases they bleeding associated with marked jaundice. Mortality is between 5 and 50%. Western Equine fever Western Equine Encephalitis is caused by the virus of the same name (EEOV, a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) which was isolated in 1930.

It is a zoonotic mosquito-borne entity capable of producing epidemics, with varying degrees of morbidity and mortality. It is distributed in North America, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay. Incubation time: 2 to 10 days. The EEO is important as a zoonotic disease in horses; outbreaks usually include a few human cases with mild symptoms and most infections are unapparent. Symptoms (mild cases of the disease have) Fever Headache Fatigue that persists for several days or weeks. The disease has a sudden onset with headache followed by: Decay Chill Fever Myalgia and malaise.

These symptoms are accentuated in the following days: Threw up Drowsiness Confusion Prostration. Neurological symptoms are limited to generalized weakness and tremors, especially of the hands, lips and tongue. Generally the improvement begins several days after defervescence, from 1 week to 10 days. SOURCE: http://www. news-medical. net/; http://www. paho. org/; http://medicinasalud. org/

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