Veterinary vision

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WATERFALLS October 13, 2007 Leave a comment Veterinary Vision WATERFALLS The lens is transparent in normal conditions, when this transparency is lost and opacities say there appear cataracts. Cataracts do not allow normal passage of light to the retina and can not be “translate” the images in the brain as impulses that reach him were incorrect. If we look at our pet front will see the center of the iris, where the pupil is located (in black under normal conditions) white (larger or smaller depending on the intensity of light or the severity of the process) . Do not confuse the sclerotic cataract lens, normal in older dogs without clinical significance. Cataracts logically leads to blindness or reduced vision in the affected eye (depending on the state in which you are). Many animals are blind without the owner being aware of it, this happens because the animals are handled very well in familiar environments and with the help of smell, touch and hearing, as these animals out of their environment show great confusion and struck with the objects around them. Other consequences occur: – Facolítica Uveitis occurs in very mature cataract (Hypermature) due to its large size causes “out” of material from the lens into the eye, this material is very inflammatory and results in intraocular inflammation, is a dangerous process. – Glaucoma is an increase in intraocular pressure and may be due to facolítica or to secondary processes such as dislocations lens (the lens is clear from its usual location) uveitis, this process is very dangerous, sometimes causing increased eyeball and loss. There are many reasons why a cataract may appear: hereditary, metabolic, inlflamatorias, traumatic, perforated ulcers, toxic, etc .

. . Symptoms and characteristics: – Loss of vision – Change color of the pupil (white) – Dilated pupil – Sometimes red eye secondary to inflammation associated – Uveitis, glaucoma or hypertensive uveitis (in some cases) – Loss of natural lens position (dislocation) in some cases Forecast: Generally good if no associated ocular or systemic diseases. If retinal problems can be eliminated to avoid secondary cataract vision problems but will be very relaxed or destroyed due to the main problem in the retina. Usually a problem of geriatric animals so surgery must be well planned to avoid problems in anesthesia and surgery (heart, kidney, eye and existing)

Postsurgical complications depend on the general condition of the animal, as well as the character of our pet (very nervous dogs are more prone to problems) Treatment: Treatment is always surgical, eliminating the clouding of the lens. Medical treatment is applied before and after surgery, in most cases for life. Not all cataracts are operable not all dogs are candidates for this surgery, to do an independent study of each case to tailor treatment R. R. UDIZ INTERESTING LINKS ON FALLS http://www. infomascota. com/articulos/veterinaria/perros/2003/12/3/vet_cataratas/ http://www.

vetcontact. com/es/art. php? a=52\x26amp;t= http://www. foyel. com/cartillas/53/cataratas_en_perros_y_gatos. html CATARACT SURGERY: Phacoemulsificator IMPORTANT NOTE: This video may offend the sensibilities of some people [Embedded content] Optivet (Video posted on YouTube) Categories: FALLS

corneal ulcers October 12, 2007 Veterinary Vision 2 reviews Corneal Ulcers Ulcers are “wounds” of the cornea. There are several types of ulcers and may be caused by many entities. symptoms: – Eye pain (blepharospasm, the affected eye closed or habre with difficulty), pain is greater in shallow ulcers, however deep ulcers are less painful (but more dangerous ! ! ) – Red eye – Blue Cornea (corneal edema) – Corneal damage can sometimes be seen with the naked eye, but for diagnosis requires the use of vital dyes such as fluorescein. – General discomfort

– self-trauma Types of ulcers: – Superficial: Affecting the surface area of ​​the cornea and are extremely painful. They can be very extensive but the prognosis is usually good. Scarring is usually rapid under normal conditions in about 4 days there reepithelialization area. Certain animals have problems in healing such as the Boxer, these animals suffer known as indolent ulcers, that are slow to heal and even surgical assistance needed for this. There are more races with this type of ulcer. Do not confuse indolent ulcers with ulcers that do not heal, there is always to look for the root cause such as eyelashes or hairs that enter the eye (trichiasis) ectopic eyelashes (distriquiasis), ectopic cilia, entropion or ectropion, etc . . . – Deep: The next step of surface corneal ulceration is deepening. In these cases the prognosis is serious because of the possibility of perforation of the eyeball. All of them require surgical treatment and correction of the underlying cause.

This type of ulcer is less painful than superficial ulceration but is much more serious. Causes: – Injuries: either self-produced or by external agents (bumps, scratches, chemicals, foreign bodies, etc . . . ) – Eyelid Problems (entropion, ectropion, trichiasis, distriquiasis, ectopic cilia, tumors, etc . . . ) – Infeciones viral, bacterial or fungal – Secondary to other diseases such as corneal problems underlying deficiency tear, proptosis bulbi, buphthalmia (increased eyeball), etc . .

. Treatment: – Medical: instillation of eye drops to relieve pain, prevent secondary infections and promote corneal scarring. you should always try the main problem, for example, if we tear deficit establish medical treatment, and resort to surgery if necessary, such as in the presence of entropion, etc . . . – Surgical: superficial ulcers complicated, very large or beginning to deepen must undergo surgery. Deep ulcers are always operating room. Surgical possibilities are varied and depend on each animal (nictitans flaps, conjunctival flaps . . . ) Forecast:

It depends on the type of ulcer and its etiology. Superficial ulcers often have a favorable prognosis while deep gravity are always reserved prognosis. Corneal ulcerations IMAGES: superficial ulcers (secondary to trauma 1st and 2nd ectopic cilium) Ulcer bacterial (Pseudomonas) and viral ulcer (herpesvirus) deep corneal ulcers (descematoceles) R. R. Udiz Categories: Corneal Ulcers GLAUCOMA October 11, 2007 Leave a comment Veterinary Vision GLAUCOMA

To increased intraocular pressure above normal physiological values ​​without clinical signs known as ocular hypertension and when it is accompanied by clinical signs such as vision loss or intraocular damage is known as glaucoma. Hypertension can be pre-glaucoma step but not necessarily develop, certain animals suffering from elevated intraocular pressure and can develop long-term injuries (eg chihuahuas, yorshire . . . ). The normal intraocular pressure (IOP) in small animals is 15 to 25 mm Hg, when these values ​​are exceeded the optic nerve and / or retina is affected resulting in noticeable changes, which are detailed below. IOP greater than 30 mm Hg with clinical signs is sufficient for a presumptive diagnosis of glaucoma. Early treatment of glaucoma is essential for visual, glaucoma guarantee more than 24 hours cause irreversible effects (although there are variations according to animals affected). Often the vision is lost before the owner becomes aware of the problem, but still quick action can save the affected eye and preserve vision in the other eye. The causes of glaucoma are varied, and depends on the species: – Glaucoma in dogs can apararecer acute and usually racial. El character early treatment is vital for a good prognosis. Generally glaucoma in dogs is a bilateral entity so should study the eye that is not apparently affected.

– Feline glaucoma has a worse prognosis may be unilateral or bilateral and is usually associated with systemic infections (toxoplasma, coronavirus, immunodeficiency or leukemia). slowly progresses to become chronic, so it has sometimes happens inadevertido by the owner until the buphthalmia (enlargement of the eyeball) appears. The IOP control is more complicated than in dogs and usually ends in enucleation. – Equine Glaucoma: much less frequent than in the previous two species and is usually 4 types: primary glaucoma, congenital glaucoma secondary to anterior uveitis and secondary to neoplasia. Control of IOP in this species is particularly complicated. Predisposition: – Racial predisposition: Dogs (Huskie, Terriers, Retrievers, Cocker Spaniels, Schnauzer, Basset, Beagles, Chow Chow, Samoyed, Great Dane . . . ) Cats (Siamese and Persian) Horses (Appaloosas) – Dislocation of lens – Uveitis – Tumors

– Eye Injuries Symptoms and characteristics: The symptomatology depends on the stage of glaucoma (acute, subacute or chronic), so the owner can see is: Acute: – Eye pain (blepharospasm, eye or eyes closed) – Blue Cornea (eye color change by corneal edema) – Fixed and dilated pupil (mydriasis) – Eye very red (red sclera) – Visual Impairment – Anorexia and depression Subacute: – Eye pain (blefarsospasmo) – Blue Cornea – Blindness or visual impairment


– Deformed, fixed and dilated pupils – Very red eye – Anorexia and depression Chronic: – Variable Eye pain – Vascularization, pigment and corneal edema – Lenticular opacification – Red or very red eye – Blindness or visual impairment – Dilated pupils fixed and abnormal – Anorexia, depression, shyness or aggression – Increase the eyeball and Descemet appearance of fine lines (by species) There may be increased pressure without symptoms, this process is known as ocular hypertension and is not the same as glaucoma, hypertension can develop into glaucoma so that preventive treatment is recommended if necessary or eliminate the trigger for the same cause ( intense stress for example)

Forecast: Reserved depend on the primary cause of glaucoma, the stage in which it is located and animal species affected. The visual prognosis depends on early treatment. Treatment: The use of topical antihypertensives, oral and / or parenteral can control certain types of glaucoma, treatment is usually for life, even in a blind eye. You can resort to surgery if necessary, always associated with medical treatment. If uncontrolled glaucoma is recommended practice evisceration and intraocular prosthesis or enucleation place in certain cases. The use of protecting retina has had great results in long-term visual eyes, delaying the onset of blindness and even preventing their appearance. Acute glaucoma is an ophthalmologic emergency and requires early attention to obtain acceptable results. Early diagnosis is crucial for the maintenance of vision. In case of suspected glaucoma consult your veterinarian. R. R.

UDIZ IMAGES OF GLAUCOMA: Buphthalmia in a puppy with glaucoma in the right eye corneal edema in the right eye in an adult but with glaucoma Buphthalmia right eye in a cat post traumatic glaucoma INTERESTING LINKS ON GLAUCOMA CANINE: http://www. revistacanina. com/notas_revista/20/Glaucoma_Canino. html http://www. petsalud. cl/articulos/Glaucoma_canino.

htm Categories: GLAUCOMA FELINE HERPESVIRUS October 10, 2007 Leave a comment Veterinary Vision FELINE HERPESVIRUS / RHINOTRACHEITIS FELINA / FHV-1 The causative agent: feline herpesvirus type 1 (HVF1) is primarily responsible for respiratory and ocular manifestations large number of feline diseases. Predisposition: – Kittens or cats provenance street – Animals vaccinated with access to fresh air and contact with unknown cats – Parents of virus carriers (transmission to offspring) – Young animals with eye problems discussed and improve but reappear in adulthood (carriers) – New cat at home (carrying the virus) that infects the old cat Symptoms and characteristics:

– Sneezing – Respiratory problems – Fever – Anorexy – discomfort – Purulent crusting – Neonatal ophthalmia in young kittens (puppies do not open their eyes and are full of gummy) – Symblepharon (abnormal connections conjunctival other ocualares attached) – Synechiae (unions iris to other ocular structures) – Acute or chronic keratitis (Cornales ulcers, eosinophilic keratitis . . . )

– Corneal Kidnapping (black plate on the cornea) – Chronic tearing (red tears) Forecast: Generally good, but usually animals that remain carriers for life and may have relapses (not always with ocular symptoms) Treatment: Symptomatic with antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and antiviral. Using products that inhibit viral replication has been very successful in the long term to control the symptoms, both ocular and respiratory. It is important to understand that the disease remains latent for life and that under certain circumstances (eg stress) can be reactivated reappearing ocular symptoms and / or breathing. IMAGES OF EYE DISEASES CAUSED BY FELINE HERPESVIRUS: respiratory and eye symptoms in a kitten neonatal ophthalmia corneal kidnapping Geographical corneal ulcer

Categories: FELINE HERPESVIRUS PROLAPSE nictitating membrane gland October 8, 2007 Veterinary Vision Leave a comment PROLAPSE gland nictitating membrane Also known as cherry eye is a disease characterized by the appearance of a pink and rounded mass behind the nictitans in the medial edge of the eye, is a condition that is not painful, but something annoying about especially at the beginning, and self-trauma may occur. Predisposition: – Brachiocephalic breeds (flat faces) and English Bulldog, Pug, French Bulldog, Shitzu, Lapsa apso, shar pei, Pekinese, etc. – Generally puppies, elderly or immunocompromised animals. – May appear in cats, but is rarer than in dogs. – Animals with cartilage in the very long nictitans, everted, or important invested glandular hyperplasia immunosuppression. Symptoms and characteristics: – It usually appears first unilaterally and, in some cases, bilateral soon. – You can not give cause discomfort or apparent symptoms.

– The gland is responsible for 40% (some authors even suggest that 60%) of the total production of tears, while the prolapsed gland is practically non-functional, – It may be associated with corneal injury (depending on the elapsed time, teardrop level, self-harm, etc. ) – Yellow / greenish gummy sticky aspect may appear secondary infections deficit tear. Forecast: – They tend to respond well to surgical treatment, having a recurrence rate of about 20%. – There may be pathologies associated with cartilage nictitans predisposing to prolapse of the gland, in these cases surgical correction of this condition is necessary to prevent recurrence. – Never to be removed (only if associated tumors) and have always replenish in place under general anesthesia. – If the gland is removed keratoconjunctivitis sicca predisposes to suffer in adulthood (especially in predisposed breeds) Surgery: The gland is positioned back in place and is supported by suturing to prevent further prolapse. IMAGES: The first image corresponds to an eye with prolapse of the gland

nictitating membrane and the second the same eye after undergoing surgery to replace the gland in its normal anatomical location interesting links about prolapse of the gland of the nictitating membrane: www. veterinariaelparque. com. ar/. . . /Oftalmologia/6-Patologia%20de%20la%20membrana%20nictitante. doc http://www. petsalud.

cl/clinicas/casos_clinicos/Ojo_de_Cereza. htm Categories: PROLAPSE nictitating membrane GLAND Welcome to the website of Veterinary Ophthalmology October 7, 2007 Veterinary Vision Leave a comment Welcome to the Blog of Veterinary Ophthalmology Mrs. Raquel R. Udiz, resident in the Canary Islands, Tenerife. This space emerges in order to bring a little more this specialty to those owners who want to know more about eye disease that affects your / s pet / companion is. Gradually we will be adding clinical cases, photographs and detailing the main surgical techniques as well as resolving all those questions that emerge over time. For questions or suggestions write to e-mail: oftalmologiaveterinaria@hotmail. com

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