Should one kiss children on the mouth?

It is proved that the affection improve mental health and intellectual development of our children. But what kind of shows? Kisses on the mouth from parents to children are very controversial because there are those in favor and those against. No one can tell us how to raise our children but it is important to consider certain issues. What the numbers say A study by The Haworth Press found that 80 percent of participating parents used to sleep in the same bed as her daughter of 5 years. 51 percent of them entered the bathroom while her daughter usually bathed and 47 percent of mothers used to kiss their children 10 years on the lips before going to work. In addition it was shown kissing a greater extent opposite sexes, that is, father and daughter mother and son. “If You start to kiss your children on the lips, when do you stop? It’s very confusing. The kiss on the lips can be exciting for them, “said Dr. Charlotte Reznick, a child psychologist and professor at the University of California in an interview. However, there are no studies demonstrating the positive or negative consequences on children.

>> I found out more: Why is it important to be loving? Kissing disease Mononucleosis is commonly called so because it is spread by saliva or close contact. The mouth kissing newborn babies can be dangerous because bacteria and viruses are transmitted orally. In 2009, a baby died 11 days in Britain because her mom caught herpes to kiss her on the lips. The small still had not developed immune system. That same year, the world population will be warned and recommended avoiding kissing on the cheek by the pandemic inflenza H1N1 virus, known as influenza A. In this regard, it is important to note that the mouth is the route of infection of many diseases and, above all, take into account the sensitive and prone they are our children before doing so to protect them. Other ways to show affection There are many ways to be kind to your children. Accompany them when they are sick, are injured or feel sad are also gestures of love. Combing your daughter before going to school each morning or sit with your baby to do homework are significant moments later remember for a lifetime. All displays of affection are valid while you respect your limits and your body, especially when the changes start growth.

You can start by surprise and say “I love you” during dinner. Who does not like to feel loved? According to specialists 40. 3 percent of people think that it’s okay to kiss children on the mouth at any age while 19. 6 said it was not acceptable at any age. Meanwhile, 40. 1 considers it appropriate to 5 years. And you, what do you think? View also: Ma, what is sex? Responding to the most uncomfortable questions

Pharmaceutical newspaper online: What betrayed ill nails

Onychodystrophien of Brigitte M. Gensthaler, Munich Hands and nails are the calling card of a man. This applies at least in the summer for the feet. Visible changes in the nails are not only unsightly but can affect the patient and weigh. DISPLAY A healthy nail grows about 100 mm per day or 3 mm per month; day, at the right hand, and during pregnancy, the nails grow most strongly. Disorders of nail growth, so-called Onychodystrophien, occur congenital or acquired and can look extremely diverse. Crooked, discolored, thickened, splintering, brittle or brittle nails often indicate systemic diseases towards commented Dr. Tilmann Oppel of the Dermatological Clinic of the University of Munich during a press conference the Trommsdorff drugs. So have Watchglass – longitudinally excessively curved nails – on heart-lung diseases, such as a right heart failure, or no nails without “lune” (lunulae) on liver cirrhosis. About half of people with Yellow Nail, a thickening of the nail plate, suffering from respiratory diseases, the doctor reported.

Longitudinal or querfasrig splintered nails occur in eczema; periungual, so nearby the nail eczema may indicate a neurodermatitis. Psoriasis is skin disorder in which the most common nails are infected. Typical are pits or pits in the nail plate. 30 to 40 percent of the Onychodystrophien go to the bank account of fungi. Transverse grooves in the nail caused by a temporarily retarded growth. When all nails affected, poisoning or infection may underlie; Furrows in individual nails can for example be a result of chilling injury. The number of other possible causes is long: herpes infections, warts, bacterial infections, benign and malignant tumors. Cytostatics and antineoplastic drugs act potentially toxic to the nail bed; after taking doxycycline reported Photoonycholyse, Oppel said. Dystrophies and Perlrillen Poor nutrition and vitamin deficiencies play a role in industrial countries in nail dystrophy, explained Professor Dr. Hans Korting of the Munich Dermatological University Hospital. He also did away with the widespread view that white spots would show in the nails a calcium deficiency. So-called Perlrillen longitudinally typical of old people and not morbid.

One third of the nail disorders goes Experience Associate Professor Dr. Gerhard A. Lutz, Hair \x26amp; Nail, Bonn, on account of incorrect shoes. Too rigid, too tight, too short, too narrow, too high, too flat: There are many ways to permanently put toes and nails under pressure. In addition, foot and toe misalignments favor mycoses. In onychomycosis Lutz advises first to nail a federation with 40 percent urea ointment over five to seven days; the healthy skin around the nail is covered with zinc paste. After removal of the affected nail Depending on the infestation antifungals locally or systemically used. An alternative could in future drug-free gel film offer (Zalain® nail patch), which presumably acts by occlusion, Lutz said. In a small study of 23 patients with onychomycosis who had attacked less than 40 percent of the nail plate, no fungi were detected in half of the patients after 24 weeks using the patch. The transparent patch that is classified as a medical device intended to hit the market beginning of 2003. © 2002 GOVI-Verlag Email: redaktion@govi. de

Medicine for cold sores can not be done under the umbrella brand Fenistil | juravendis

The Higher Administrative Court of North Rhine Westphalia has the pharmaceutical company Novartis forbidden to lead his medication for cold sores under his umbrella brand Fenistil. The judges see this misleading to consumers since it does not contain the same active substance as other Fenistilprodukte. Only about a successful leave to appeal the judgment could still be dumped. Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices denied change The pharmaceutical company Novartis is known, among other things through its brand Fenistil whose medicinal products intended for use on the skin. This includes the Fenistil gel used by consumers frequently. This contains the active substance Dimetindenmaleat. With the selfsame active there will be parallel still drops and coated tablets, which are conducted under this umbrella brand. A preparation for cold sores, which Novatis also wanted to perform under the umbrella brand Fenistil, containing another active ingredient, namely penciclovir. After in 2005 the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), the amendment refused to perform in accordance with the display of the pharmaceutical company the herpes drug henceforth under this umbrella brand, broke a long-standing dispute. The BfArM rejected the change because of the active ingredient contained in most Fenistil preparations Dimetindenmaleat was not included in the disputed drug. According to the Institute therefore would have an effect of an antihistamine although in reality this is not the case. The drugmaker looked over it and led, as intended, the drug under the brand name.

Higher Administrative Court ruled against the drugmaker After the Cologne administrative court had ruled in 2011 against Novartis, now the dispute could be closed by the decision of the Higher Administrative Court of North Rhine Westphalia. This was also added to the second instance the Federal Institute law. According to the OVG-judge the name of lip herpes drug under the brand name Fenistil 1 2 sentence 1 of the Medicines Act with § 8 para. No. (AMG) incompatible. For the purposes of this provision there is a misnomer, as the name evokes at a not inconsiderable proportion of the relevant public unfounded expectations or misconceptions. Here, the Court considers that, given the importance of the legal asset health and associated with false expectations of pharmaceutical health risks to the truth, precision and clarity of the denomination of the drug to make increased demands (so-called. Strengeprinzip). Judges see mislead executive of anti Herpes preparation under the brand name Fenistil Measured against these requirements, there is a deception. Decisive is in drugs for self-treatment, such as the informed and reasonably observant and circumspect consumer understands the term, the court said. This

“Familiar typically that the legal term is so clear that it does not cause misconceptions or misunderstandings about the drug. ” Regarding the disputed name this necessary distinction is not possible. Because “When the main component of a multi-part name consists of an umbrella brand, which is used for certain medicinal products for several years, there is a risk that consumers who know such a preparation of the same brand, a same main title leading (new) drug in terms of its application area and its therapeutic efficacy than the same or at least similar to perceive. ” This association is to use just one of the key reasons umbrella brands from an economic point of view, as in the judgment. Application site is not a guide to other drug Even if the preparation is accompanied by the words “cold sores” misleading’m not entirely avoided. This designation illustrates the consumer, although the application and the application site. “But this it does not follow (with the necessary clarity) that the disputed drug one of the most” “contains different active ingredient and a different mechanism of action triggers. ” Fenistil preparations Internet pharmacy has been led astray

will be underpinned the assessment of the Court also characterized by an already was done “reputable” internet pharmacy by this designation is misleading. The local information on the composition of the herpes drug is apparent, penciclovir was attached only as an adjuvant. In fact, he is the only active ingredient. That such a misjudgment makes an operator of an Internet pharmacy, is the significant risk of designation related mislead a significant proportion of the average consumer, reasonably observant and circumspect consumer, so the judges. Only possible by successful leave to appeal next instance Whether in this case the last word remains to be seen. Even though the judges have a revision is not allowed, but the drugmaker could go in the next instance by means of a successful leave to appeal. Author :: Lawyer Martin Bauer

HIV \x26amp; More: issue 1/2012: Ingo Husstedt and Stefan Evers, Münster

Issue 1-2012 Ingo Husstedt and Stefan Evers, Münster Epileptic seizures in HIV and AIDS Basically idiopathic epilepsies are (that inherited epilepsies) to be distinguished from symptomatic (for example, cerebral toxoplasmosis). Cause of symptomatic epilepsies can be opportunistic infections, strokes and even drug use with HIV infection in patients. Fig. 1 Partial complex seizure; left before the attack, the right rhythmic movements of the right arm and psychological absence with rigid, expressionless glance Fig. 2 Generalized epileptic seizure; left before the attack, right in attack In principle, partial and generalized seizures can be distinguished. The conspicuous changes and manifestations in an epileptic seizure depend on the function of the brain area in which the attack occurs. There occur involuntary rhythmic contractions of the body, wherein the arbitrary motion is canceled. Even pain or changes in sense perception can represent partial seizures.

Other typical symptoms are blurred vision, changes in smell, taste, hearing and balance. If in addition to these symptoms impaired responsiveness to stimuli or the memory is changed, it is called partial complex seizures (Fig. 1) Generalized seizures Frequency in Germany Seizures are one of the most common chronic diseases in neurology. For Germany, the number of patients is estimated with epilepsy 400000-800000 at 30,000 new cases per year. In addition to the persons concerned with a secured epilepsy, it is estimated that approximately 5% of the population is a latent epilepsy, which also corresponds to the proportion of the population at least once developed an epileptic seizure in life, but without suffering from epilepsy. Acute assistance in epilepsy Try to catch or lie down, the best place in recovery position the falling Move out of danger zone to bring out, thereby transporting the upper body and not on the extremities, as it can easily lead to dislocation Defensive movements give way, because it can very easily lead to physical confrontations otherwise Slide no object between the teeth, usually more damage depends on when it brings benefits

Useless around standing are asked to leave, since regaining consciousness “Gaffer” are very uncomfortable Duration of the attack register, especially in the first epileptic seizure briefing organize hospitalized Table 1 Best known are generalized seizures (Fig. 2). This caused complete loss of consciousness on, often an initial scream with tension of the muscles, it comes to the fall and generalized rhythmic twitching of muscles with Zungenbiss, breath holding with turning blue in the face and salivation. Often these attacks are accompanied by stool or urine loss and the person is disoriented for some time after the attack. causes Depending on the stage of HIV infection have up to 90% of patients to a form of Neuro-AIDS. Trigger of seizures may be the HIV-associated neuro-cognitive disorder, has been previously reported (HIV \x26amp; more 2/2007, www. hivandmore. de/archiv), as well as opportunistic infections, alcohol and drug use. Each newly occurring epileptic seizure in a patient with HIV infection represents an acute emergency, which must be sent immediately to a neurological department.

It is estimated that epileptic seizures in up to 20% of all HIV-infected persons may occur. In a group of 500 patients who were admitted to the emergency in a neurological clinic, led, inter alia, at 20% of epileptic seizures for emergency Aufnahme. 1 In most studies are primary generalized seizures with 30% as the most common form beschrieben. 2 by a retrospectively examined collective of Neuro-AIDS clinic at the University Hospital Münster reported 6% epileptic seizures or epilepsy. Who is in such an epileptic seizure, one should not panic, but be calm and collected verhalten. 3 So threatening such seizure may look, it is not dangerous for those involved in the rule. It is virtually impossible to stop an attack that has been started. All relief efforts are aimed at potential complications and particular injuries to verhindern. 3 Stationary clarification Fig. 3 Generalized spikes / waves during a generalized epileptic seizure Fig.

4 Generalized spikes / waves under photic stimulation as a provocation method Each first epileptic seizure in an HIV-infected persons and an overall evaluation in a Department of Neurology, generally under steady state conditions. The derivation of an electroencephalogram ( “brain power curve”) returns with spikes / waves the crucial points, as they are typical for epileptic seizures (Fig. 3). In some cases, methods are used that provoke these changes as the photic stimulation with a flickering light (Fig. 4). Magnetic resonance imaging is used for the detection of lesions of the brain such as e. g. cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS stage (Fig. 5). The HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder leads to changes in the brain, may be the cause of epileptic seizures, the HIV virus is already a few weeks after the acquisition of HIV infection in the brain detectable. In 30% of all people infected with HIV, the HIV virus can be detected by PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid, although the virus is suppressed to undetectable levels in the plasma. Indications for treatment

As a rule, there is an indication for treatment with anticonvulsants, if at least two attacks without provocation factors (sleep deprivation, alcohol consumption, drug use) have occurred. In epileptic seizures because of focal lesions of the brain, treatment with antiepileptic drugs is indicated in many cases. In a prospective study of 500 patients, which included five years, (35%), metabolic disorders or unknown causes were the main causes of epileptic seizures toxic drugs (47%), intracranial lesions (18%) were found. It was in 70% of cases to generalized seizures, in 12% of simple motor seizures in 18% resulted to partial-complex Anfälle. 5 investigations on its own collective, that in 40% of cases in erstaufgetretenen seizures an opportunistic infection as a trigger vorlag. 2 drug prevention Fig. 5 33 year old patient from Cameroon. HAART with boosted atazanavir plus tenofovir / emtricitabine. For cerebral toxoplasmosis sulfadiazine 4x 2 g, Daraprim 2x 50 mg, atovaquone 2x 1. 5g © Prof.

Heindel, Department of Clinical Radiology UK Münster Possible causes of HIV-associated epilepsy acute meningitis / encephalitis HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder opportunistic infections CMV Toxoplasmosis cryptococcosis PML HSV encephalitis cerebral tuberculosis primary cerebral lymphoma strokes drugs

antiretroviral medication Tab. 2 HAART usually includes drugs that have a high potential for interaction with anticonvulsants. Older substances for the treatment of epileptic seizures as Although such phenylhydantoin or valproic acid are cheap and in principle also effective, but have a high rate of side effects such as Fatigue, neuropathy and hair loss. Moreover, they have a wide range of interactions with HAART. Good are the substances gabapentin, pregabalin and levetiracetam, the two first and coexisting distalsymmetrischer, HIV-associated neuropathic pain have a significant therapeutic effect. The up-dosing follows the general guidelines, it has to be done einschleichend. Own investigations received by the patients, who were set to anticonvulsant therapy, 50% of people infected with HIV drugs such as unsuitable Valproic acid, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, clonazepam or Phenylhydantoin. 2 Antiepileptic drugs must be taken regularly, skipping increases the risk of an epileptic seizure, especially when sleep deprivation, alcohol or drugs are added. Depending on the cause and the course can possibly be done to three years of seizure freedom a slow tapering off after two. Here regular checks by a neurologist is necessary.

In one attack, which is classified by the treating neurologist as an opportunity attack, the driving ability is back after an observation period of 3 to 6 months, if the triggering conditions of the occasion seizure no longer apply. In other epileptic seizures – as due to an opportunistic infection – is driving ability at the earliest after one year seizure freedom. Prof. Ingo W. Husstedt Neuro-AIDS Outpatient Clinic of Neurology, University Hospital Münster Albert-Schweitzer-Straße 33 48129 Münster Email: husstedt@uni-muenster. de 1 Satishchandra P, Sinha S: Seizures in HIV-seropositive indivuduals: NIMHANS experience and review. Epilepsia 2008; 49: 33-41 2 Kellinghaus C, C Engbring, Husstedt IW et al .

: Frequency of seizures and epilepsy in neurological HIV-infected patients. Seizure 2008; 17: 27-33 3 Landesärztekammer Baden-Württemberg, Patient information: First aid for an epileptic seizure. http://www. aerztekammer-bw. de 4 Goldstein MA, Harden CL: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). http://professionals. epilepsy. com 5 Pascual-Sedano B, Iranzo A, Marti-Fabregas J et al . : Prospective study of new-onset seizures in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: etiologic and clinical aspects. Arch Neurol 1999; 56: 609-612

Issue 1-2012

Zika virus – A Public Health Emergency of International Concern

February 08, 2016 | From Ross Campbell | English | The mosquito-borne virus Zika Could infect on estimated 4 million people across the Americas this year, gemäß to the WHO. The first local transmissions in South America were Identified in May 2015 and since then cases have been reported in more than 20 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. 1 Concurrently, a rapid spike in the incidence of microcephaly in newborns has been Observed in Brazil since the country’s outbreak of the Zika virus. Microcephaly is a devastating condition did Means a baby is born with abnormally small head of Because The brain hasnt developed properly. Babies born with it face a range of health and developmental problems. By the end of January over 4,000 Suspected cases of microcephaly had been reported in Brazil – more than 20 times the known average annual rate. 2 . According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, microcephaly has ranged from 2 to 12 babies per 10,000 live births in the US3 Brazil, where 8,000 new babies are born each day, would normally anticipate a few hundred cases each year. HOWEVER, not all recently reported cases of Suspected microcephaly in Brazil are confirmed yet as being associated with the virus. Despite this, the circumstantial evidence and lack of effective vaccine has prompted the WHO to issue a rare global public health emergency declaration. The main concern is for women who are, or might be, pregnant.

It is thought microcephaly is a complication of intrauterine infection during the first trimester, meaning some women may not even be aware of Their pregnancy at the point of infection. Countries have advised pregnant women against travel to affected areas. In adults Zika’s letterhead symptoms include mild fever, skin rash and conjunctivitis. Most people do not realize They are infected, making the virus difficult to track. There is a chance infection Could cause patients to experience serious neurological complications, Including meningitis, myelitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Zika is Primarily trans mitted in bites from infected Aedes mosquitos. Sporadic outbreaks have occurred in the past where the insects are common: Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Aedes mosquitos are therefore found in the Southern states of the U. S. The same mosquito is a vector for dengue, Suggesting Zika Could thus spread in areas Commonly affected by this virus, too, to parts of Australia, South East Asia, China, sub-Saharan Africa and India. The Aedes mosquito does not survive in northern countries, so local transmission within temperate climates is unlikely. HOWEVER, people’s travel from affected areas may explain reports of cases imported into Europe; Perhaps Their blood is freighted with the virus and insects are stowaways in Their luggage. Blood transfusion is an obvious infection risk and there are questions about Whether the virus is sexually transmitted.

In writing insurance in areas affected did are by the Zika virus and experiencing to abnormal rise in the incidence of microcephaly, it may be prudent to consider excluding benefits for congenital conditions in unborn children. After a full recovery from the virus, Applicants for life insurance are not a risk unless there are indications of Guillain-Barre syndrome. Some Critical Illness products include partial or additional payments for Guillain-Barre syndrome, but where coverage is limited by definition to permanent conditions, there is no particular concern; infection with Zika is unlikely to cause long-term disability in adults. Endnotes http://wwwnc. cdc. gov/travel/notices/alert/zika-virus-south-america Pan American Health Organization / World Health Organization. Epidemiological update: Neurological syndromes, congenital anomalies and Zika virus infection. 17 January, Washington, D. C. . : PAHO / WHO; 2016

http://www. cdc. gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/microcephaly. html