AIDS and its treatment by Chinese Herbal Medicine © 1996 by Gunter R. Neeb In the beginning of the eighties, on patients with severe immune deficiencies a new virus which found by showing did most of prosthesis patients had antibodies against this virus. Nowadays this virus is known in two types, called Human Immunedeficiency Virus Type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) of Which the first type is more common in the western world. It belongs to a subgroup of the retrovirus-Class, the Lentovirus-Group, Which lead only slowly to disease after infect Their host, seeking Causing a persisiting infection Which remains inactive for a long time. The symptomeless stage may take 10 Years or more, Which to aproximate maximum of 15 years afterwhich most patients show symptoms of mortal immune-deficiency. The virus’ genome besteht of RNA All which is copied to a complementary RNA-string by the enzyme reverse transcriptase. After the first flu-like acute infection in Which a high viral titer can be seen, the virus has killed and infected many CD4 T-Cells and macrophages. The reaction immunic besteht of antibodies, CD-4 and Helpercells -inflammative cells, as well as of cytotoxic CD 8-Cells. After this acute phase the blood is Effectively frred from the virus with a few circulating CD 4-Cells carrying one copy of the inactive genome of the virus. Although the peripheral blood contains no viruses during the inactive phase, the virus itself Reproduces Actively in the lymphatic tissue, brain, and someother regions.
this chronic infection Gradually destroys the CD4 T-Cells I n in a not yet completely Call explained ‘way. After almost all CD-4 T-Cells are destroyed, i. e. if Their count is below 200 per ul, the imunedeficiency stage is reached, and the syndrome is called AIDS. Gradually lymphatic folliculary dendritic cells are damaged leading to a loss of lymphatic follicles and thereafter a complete destruction of the lymphatic tissue. A similar process destroys the thymusstroma. If a new acute infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2 is Suspected or early enough detected, Several antivirus herbs from Chinese Medicine can be prescribed to secure a low infection rate. Since the toxicity of some is very low, They Can be used even as a preventive measure in order to keep the virus from spreading. One promising candidate among them is “zi hua di ding” or viola yedoensis (Pls. Refer to the Following table). Chinese medical herbs Affecting various viruses: List 1 name
Chinese name Effects on Virus / toxicity or LD50 Viola yedoyensis Zi hua di ding HIV / low toxicity arcticum lappa Niu ban zi HIV / low tox. Andrographis paniculata * Chuan xi lian HIV, ECH011 / 13. 4 g / kg Lithospermum rythrorhizon
Zi cao HIV, Jinke, flu, polio, hepatitis / 681. 13mg / kg Altemanthera philoxeroides Lung xin lian zi cao HIV, flu, encephalitis B. retrovirus rabies virus / 455. 5g / kg Lonicera japonica Jin yin hua HIV, flu (PR8), herpes / orphan (mice) 53g / kg Coptis chinensis Huang-lian
HIV, hepatitis B RuS, Newcastle disease / 24. 3mg / kg Epimedium grandiflorum Yin yang huo HIV, polio, ECHO 6. 9, Coxsackie A9, B4, B5 / 36g / kg Woodwardia unigemmata Guo ji zhong guan jue HIV, flu (PR8, Jinke 68-1,57-4, NewA1, Lee, C1232, D), England. II, polio II, Coxsackie, herpes simplex, encephalitis / 1. 7g / kg (mice) Prunella vulgaris Xia ku cao
HIV / low toxicity Senecio scandens Qian li guang HIV / 302. 6g / kg *** Hypericum japonicum Di he cao HIV, hepatitis B / no obvious toxicity Scutellaria baicalensis Huang qin HIV, flu PR8, (Asian A-flu) Xiantai, rhinovirus 17, adenovirus 7 / 3. 081g / kg * Baphicacanthis folium
Da qing ye flu, mumps, encephalitis B / no obvious toxicity Baphicacanthis rhizoma, radix Ban lan gen flu, hepatitis A, B, mumps, herpes encephalitis B. / no obvious toxicity Bupleuri radix Chai hu flu, smallpox / 4. 7g / kg gland (mice) Ledebouriellae radix Fang feng flu, Columbia SK
Polygonum cuspidatum Hu zhang herpes, ECHO9, ECHO11, adenovirus, hepatitis B. , flu, encephalitis B. Coxsackie A, B, polio II / 1363mg / kg * Forsythiae fructus Lian qiao flu (Asian A), nose-17 / 29. 37g / kg (mice) Taraxaci herba Pu gong ying ECHO11, herpes / 156. 3g / kg
* LD50 is given in the doses of chemical scents of the herb. ** LD50 is given in the doses of alcohol extract, IV injection. *** LD50 is given dependent on the herb produced in China; in some countries this herb is very toxic (Geissman, 1964). There are 20 herbs listed in Table 1. The antiviral spectrum and toxicities of each herb are given. Thirteen of them have inhibitory effects on the HIV. Some others have antivirus effects on other viruses. The HIV virus’ ability to avoid immunity response has much in common with some of thesis viruses: The permanent and latent infection is therefore seen in the Epstein-Barr virus and the herpes simplex virus; the antigenic variation by mutations can be found as well in trypanosomes, the influenza virus and Streptococcus some kinds. The induction of an immune-supression shares the HIV virus withsome Staphylococcus kinds and the Mycobacterium leprae. From an allopathic view, it may not be proper to list thesis herbs until theyhave been tested in vivo against the HIV virus; HOWEVER, from a TCM view, if Certain herbs have been proven effective against a Certain virus in clinical trials, the same mechanism may work against another virus in the human body. TCM holds did any herb or drug taken into the body must first affect the body’s metabolism so it can more did Effectively fight the pathogen. Although the concept of an antivirus is an allopathic approach, TCM’s principle of Treating febrile infectious diseases (qing re jie du, heat-clearing and toxin-Eliminating) with herbal remedies can give this approach a new meaning.
The toxicity of thesis herbs is very low, so They Can be used safely for a long period, even over a lifetime, by HIV-infected persons or, as Mentioned before as a preventive measure. The 13 herbs Which Showed inhibitory effects on HIV in vitro may therefore contribute to the treatment of various complications of AIDS. These patients are known to be subject of opportunistic infections and some kinds of cancer. Those are Caused by organisms Which Usually can be controlled Easily by the immune system, like Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Causing, as well as E. G. Toxoplasma, the Cytomegaly virusand some Mycobacteria like M. tuberculosis and even some normally harmless kinds like M. avium. The functioning of the cellular defese is Necessary for at effective control of microorganisms thesis. Some patients (about 20%) is therefore affected by organisms, Which are Usually controlled by the humoral defense system like Haemophilus influenzae. THEREFORE mostimportant are probably Those herbs Which stimulate the growth of the T-lymphocytes as listed below: Common name asparagus (root)
atractylodes, white (rhizome) Coix (seed) Coriolus (sclerotium) epimedium (leaves) ganoderma (wholesale) lentinus (wholesale) ligustrum (fruit) ginseng (root) phaseolus, white (bean) huang-jing (rhizome) Besides AIDS Patients are liable to develope tumors like the Kaposi’s Syndrome, a slowly developing Usually proliferation of Bloodvessel cells, and to tumors of the B-Cells, the non-Hodgekin-Lymphomes and such of the brain. This might be explainable by a lacking T-cell response against tumor cells or a chronic stimulation of the B cells, another feature of HIV-infections. Since many herbs in Chinese Medicine havebeen proven to stimulate the immune system or some parts of it, thesis herbs can therefore be used in any stage of the HIV infection, i.
e. When An opportunistic infection the occurs or gene rally to stimulate the immune system. Pls. refer to list 2 below: Chinese medical herbs Affecting the immune system (list 2) Promoting lymphoblast transformation Botanical name Angilica sinensis, acutiloba Astragalus membranaceus Atractylodes macrocephala Codonopsis pilosula Coix lachryma-jobi Coriolus versicolor
Epimedium grandiflorum Ganoderma lucidum Gelatin equi asini Ligustrum lucidum Panax ginseng Phaseolus vulgaris Polygonatum sibiricum Polygonum multiflorum Increasing the Number of White Blood Cells Botanical name Acanthopanax senticosus Astragalus membranaceus Cinnamomum cassia
Codonopsis pilosula Comus officinalis Ganoderma lucidum Gelatin Equi asini Ligustrum lucidum Millettia dielsiana Panax ginseng Phaseolus vulgaris Placenta Homines sapientis Psoralea corylifolia Increasing phagocytosis of neutrophilic WBC Botanical Name Common Name Astragalus membranaceus Huangqi (root)
Atractylodes macrocephala atractylodes, white Dioscorea opposita dioscorea (root) Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Panax ginseng ginseng (root) Increasing the Number of Mononucleic Macrophages Botanical Name Common Name Coriolus versicolor Coriolus (sclerotium) Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Lentinus edodes lentinus (hole) Promoting Phagocytosis of Macrophages Mononucleic Botanical Name Common Name Acanthopanax senticosus ginseng, Siberian (root) Angilica sinensis, acutiloba tang-kuei (root)
Astragalus membranaceus Huangqi (root) Atractylodes macrocephala atractylodes, white (rhizome) Codonopsis pilosula codonopsis (root) Epimedium grandiflorum Epimedium (leaf) Eucommia Eucommia (bark) Ganoderma lucidum ganoderma, lingzhi (wholesale) Lentinus edodes lentinus (wholesale) Panax ginseng ginseng (root) Polyporus umbellatus polyporus (sclerotium) Psoralea Corylifolia psoralea (seed) Rehmannia glutinosa rehmannia (root) II. Herbs Affecting Non-Specific Humoral Immunities
Inducing the Production of Interferon Botanical Name Common Name Astragalus membranaceus astragalus (root) Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA) phaseolus, white (bean) (Ie Astragalus can promote the production of interferon by viral stimulations. ) Anti-Complementary Activities Botanical Name Common Name Cinnamon cassia cinnamon (twigs) Lentinus edodes lentinus (wholesale) (These herbs have triggering effects on the C3 complementary. ) III.
Herbs Affecting Specific humoral Immunities Those Promoting Hypertrophy of antigen-combining Cells in Mice obsessions at the Early Stage of the immuno-reaction Botanical Name Common Name Angilica sinensis tang-kuei (root) Astragalus membranaceus astragalus (root) Coix lachryma-jobi Coix (seed) Comus officinalis cornus (fruit) Those Promoting Hypertrophy of Antibody-Producing Cells Botanical Name Common Name Asparagus cochinchinensis asparagus (root) Coix lachryma-jobi Coix (seed) Coriolus versicolor Coriolus (sclerotium) Epimedium grandiflorum epimedium (leaves)
Ganoderma Lucidum ganoderma (wholesale) Ligustrum lucidum ligustrum (fruit) Ophiopogon japonica Ophiopogon (root) Polygonatum sibiricum huang-jing (rhizome) Polyporus umbellatus polyporus (sclerotium) Psoralea Corylifolia psoralea (seed) Those Suppressing Hypertrophy of Antibody-Producing Cells Botanical Name Common Name Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Those Regulating Hypertrophy of Antibody-Producing Cells Botanical Name Common Name Astragalus membranaceus astragalus (root) Those Increasing Antibody Production
Botanical Name Common Name Astragalus membranaceus Huangqi (root) Coriolus versicolor Coriolus (sclerotium) Epimedium grandiflorum epimedium (leaves) Lentinus edodes lentinus (wholesale) Panaxginseng ginseng (root) Placenta hominis sapientis placenta, human Polygonum multiflorum he-shou-wu (wholesale) Rehmannia glutinosa rehmannia (root) Those Suppressing Antibody Production Botanical Name Common Name Angelica sinensis tang-kuei (root) Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root)
Psoralea Corylifolia psoralea (seed) Zizyphus jujuba jujube (seed) IV. Those Herbs Affecting the Production of Different Types of immunoglobulin (Ig) Herbs Which Affect immunoglobulin (Ig) Promotive Suppressive IgG Lentinus edodes Psoralea Corylifolia Astragalus membranaceus IgA placenta hominis Psoralea Corylifolia (Serum) Rehmannia glutinosa IgA Astragalus membranaceus (Secretion) Ganoderma lucidum Polygoni multi floristic
Epimedium grandiflora floristic IgM Astragalus membranaceus Psoralea Corylifolia Coriolus versicolor IgE Astragalus membrananceus Because of the disruption of the immune system, various allergic reactions can be seen in AIDS and HIV (+) patients, most notably hay fever and allergic sinusitis. The Following list contains herbs Which can be used for different types of allergic conditions: List 3: Herbs Affecting Allergic Reactions Herbs Affecting Type I Allergic Reactions Those Suppressing the secretion of histamines Botanical Name Common Name Ganoderma Lucidum ganoderma (sclerotium) Those Providing relief from bronchial spasms due to histamines and Acetylecholine Botanical Name Common Name
Coriolus versicolor Coriolus (sclerotium) Ganoderma Lucidum ganoderma (sclerotium) Epimedium grandiflorum epimedium (leaves) Placenta hominis sapientis placenta, human Psoralea Corylifolia psoralea (seed) Those Providing Relief of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Spasms Caused by Histamine and Acetylecholine Botanical Name Common Name Angelica sinensis tang-kuei (root) Cinnamomi cortex cinnamon (twigs) Comus officinalis cornus (fruit) Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Those Which Suppress Allergic Shock or Allergic Skin Reactions Caused by Foreign protein Botanical Name Common Name
Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Panax ginseng ginseng (root) Placenta hominis sapientis placenta, human II. Those Affecting Type II Allergic Reactions (Cytolytic) Those Preventing ABO Hemolysis Botanical Name Common Name Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Those Increasing the Number of Platelets Botanical Name Common Name Glycyrrhiza uralensis licorice (root) Placenta hominis sapientis placenta, human Rehmannia glutinosa rehmannia (root)
Those Increasing the Number of Red Blood Cells Botanical Name Common Name Acanthopanax senticosus ginseng, Siberian (root) Codonopsis pilosula codonopsis (root) Equi asini equine gelatine Panax ginseng ginseng (root) (These herbs can therefore affect hemolysis. ) III. Those Affecting Type III Allergic Reactions Botanical Name Common Name Astragalus membranaceus astragalus (root) Glyzyrhiza uralensis licorice (root)
Rehmanniae radix rehmannia (root) IV. Those Affecting Type IV Allergic Reaction (Delayed) Botanical Name Common Name Angelica sinensis tang-kuei (root) Bombyx batryticatus silkworm (wholesale) Glycyrrhiza uralentsis licorice (root) As Mentioned above some kinds of cancer can Occur positive in HIV patients. Since there are many herbs in TCM proven effective against various kinds of cancer, only to be listed here excerpt can, since this would exceed this topic by far. So finally in List 4 are listed only herbs Those Which may be effective against cancers in typical AIDS patients, namely leukemia and lymphoma. Since some of thesis autumn are toxic or cytistatic Themselves, They Should not be used Before They are Indicated. List 4: Herbs for cancers in AIDS patients (late stage) Botanical Name Chinese Name
Polysticticum yun zhi Hedyotis diffusa bai hua she she cao Indigo naturalis qing dai Catharanthi rosei chang chun hua Lysimachiaiae Clethroidis zhen zhu cai Botanical Name Chinese Name Camptothecae Acuminatae xi shu Sarcandra glabra zhong jie feng Curcuma aromatica / zedoaria e zhu Brucea javanica ya dan zi Of thesis herbs the first one in the list, Polystipticum is one of the most interesting herbs, since its toxicity is very low, while it is useful for leukemia, lymphoma and liver cancer, by inhibiting the synthesis of the DNA and RNA of tumor cells , Besides this it antagonizes the immunosuppression Caused by cyclophosphamides and cortisone, while Increasing the amount of macrophages, Promotes phagocytosis and Enhances the Board of blastogenesis and rosette forming, seeking being a promising agent for Both enhancing the immune system and Suppressing tumor developement. At the moment clinical western medicine hasnt yet found any solutions exept medicaments like AZT, Which inhibit the function of the reverse transcriptase and THEREFORE have a toxic effect on human cells as well. Some other proposals are searching to find specific inhibitors of the viral protease or the developement of antibodies for the virus surface or synthezising substances Which ought to block the docking of gp120 to the CD4.
But They are quiet far from ready to be used in clinical practice. THEREFORE Traditional Chinese Medicine might Provide some useful alternative by combining herbs with western medicaments or even use them alone in different stages of HIV-Positive patients and other types of immune deficiency syndromes.