Buy Cornea and External Eye Disease | Reinhard, Thomas | 9783540336808 | Springer

About this book This outstanding volume in the Essentials in Ophthalmology series presents Recent Developments in the diagnosis and treatment of corneal disease. Its intention is not to replace the Relevant textbooks, but to serve as a bridge Between primary and tertiary literature. This well-structured volume covers the following main topics: Herpes simplex keratitis. -Amniotic Membrane transplantation for the treatment of corneal ulceration in infectious keratitis. -Chlamydial Infection. -Chronic Blepharitis. -New On the pathogenesis of aspects conjunctival melanoma. -Confocal Microscopy of malignant tumors of the ocular surface. -Management Of ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid. Corneal dystrophies -Classification of molecular genetic basis on. -Phototherapeutic Keratectomy in corneal dystrophies. -Fuchs Endothelial dystrophy.

-The Topical nerve growth factor in the treatment of severe surface disorders. -The Intracorneal ring for penetrating keratoplasty. -Developments In corneal preservation. -Corneal Substitutes for transplantation. All topics Have direct clinical Importance and ophthalmologists will not only keep up to date, but will inform them of how to treat corneal Their Patients With optimal diagnostic and therapeutic Procedures. Written for: Ophthalmologists in clinical and private practice, residents, ophthalmologists-in-training, optometrists, and ophthalmic nurses Keywords: Conjunctival Chlamydial infection Corneal dystrophies melanoma Corneal Limbal stem cell deficiency preservation Table of contents From the contents Developments in corneal preservation. – Chlamydial infection as an STD in the phototherapeutic keratectomy Industrialized WORLD. – in corneal dystrophies.

– Therapeutic approach in chronic blepharoconjunctivitis. – New therapeutic strategies in limbal stem cell deficiency. – New Aspects in pathogenesis of malignant conjunctival melanoma. – Classification of corneal dystrophies on a molecular genetic basis.

Glandular fever (mononucleosis) –

By Fabian Dupont © olly – Fotolia Glandular fever, also mononucleosis (infectious mononucleosis) called, is a common, often harmless, viral disease. Almost all people over 30 carry the virus. Since infectious mononucleosis is transmitted primarily via the saliva, called glandular fever also kiss disease, in English: kissing disease. Here you can read everything about glandular fever. Glandular fever: Contents Glandular fever: Description The glandular fever is caused by the Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). Since most teenagers and young adults are affected by the symptoms in industrialized nations, known in the vernacular glandular fever also students or students fever disease. In England, the disease is often called “kissing disease” as the virus is mainly transmitted by kissing. Especially “kiss active” population, for example, students are, therefore, concerned increased. EBV is transmitted through body fluids.

Particularly high is the viral load in saliva, so it will be passed quickly in intimate contact. Other routes of infection are also conceivable, however, make an exception. Also available on other mucous membranes than the oral mucosa and the blood can detect the virus, therefore may exist in blood transfusions or during sexual intercourse, a contagion. The Ebstein Barr virus infects and multiplies in a subset of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and in mucous cells in the throat. These are the only cells in the body, in which the virus can penetrate. Between infection and outbreak of the disease are usually four to six weeks. Who knows about his infection, should avoid giving the virus to others for several weeks (kissing disease) . because the virus via saliva sharing is possible even long after resolution of symptoms. A person who has been infected with the EB virus remains a lifetime carriers of the virus. The immune system keeps the pathogen but in chess, you will therefore not fall ill again normally. back to contents Additional information for you Video Playlist: glandular fever

Glandular fever – what helps? Here is how to reduce fever and what helps in severe cases. More Videos about glandular fever: 02:59 min Glandular fever – what helps? 02:56 min How to Measure Fever 02:11 min Glandular fever – Precautions 03:09 min Glandular fever – signs Glandular fever: infection Everything important to the typical infection because of mononucleosis read the post glandular fever – infection.

back to contents Additional information for you Glandular fever: symptoms Everything important to the typical signs of mononucleosis read the post glandular fever – symptoms. back to contents Glandular fever: Causes and Risk Factors The glandular fever is caused by a virus. This virus is one of eight dangerous for the human herpesviruses. Each of them triggers a different disease, are some examples of lip / genital herpes or chickenpox and shingles. Causative agent of mononucleosis is called, named after its discoverers Ebstein-Barr virus. This can only cause glandular fever, but not, for example, cold sores. When EB virus is a DNA virus that can be found in very many people. The virus can survive and propagate only in certain white blood cells (B lymphocytes), as well as in certain mucosal cells of the pharynx.

is transmitting the infectious mononucleosis via saliva. In children this is often done by family members or, for example, in kindergarten through common toys, as young adults almost exclusively through kissing. The virus can not survive for long outside the human and always need the human host in order to multiply. In order for a transfer to take place, must be held close contact between an uninfected and an infected person. Anyone who has been infected with the Epstein Barr virus is lifelong carriers of the virus. The risk of re-infection is therefore only for people who have never been infected by EBV. Glandular fever: alcohol and drugs pollute the liver The infection also burdened the liver often considerable. Therefore sufferers should try when mononucleosis to avoid alcohol, so as not to damage the liver even further. Because many drugs are degraded in the liver, some drugs for the duration of the disease damaging substances must be replaced by less liver. In some cases, the liver for months remain elevated, so regular blood tests are required, and the consumption of alcohol should be set for several months. Glandular fever: Sport with caution! Whether Pfeiffer’s glandular fever impossible Sport, also depends on the course of disease.

In the acute phase, or in severe infections should avoid sports affected very, later a very light movement training is often possible. Because of the mononucleosis often greatly swollen spleen is under intense stress or by force from the outside also the risk of a crack of the strong by bleeding organ. The case caused bleeding can be life-threatening. Therefore, contact and combat sports are prohibited during this period. That glandular fever first appears during pregnancy, is extremely rare. For most women of childbearing age carry the Epstein-Barr virus already in and have built up a body’s own protection. One assumes that an EBV primary infection may increase the risk of preterm delivery, or much less frequently a malformation during pregnancy. back to contents Glandular fever: research and diagnostics Glandular fever is often not or only detected late because the main symptoms such as sore throat, fever and swollen lymph nodes also occur with simple flu-like infections colds. Doctors refer to symptoms that can be caused by other diseases as “non-specific”. It means that he must always think when they occur and to a host of other diseases. Only if the fever does not decrease, or the patient complains for weeks about fatigue, revealing a blood test may one standing behind it glandular fever.

Most glandular fever occurs in people under 30 years, and often can then connect to an infected partner prepared. In the blood, there are following typical changes :. The white blood cells and the concentration of liver enzymes are elevated, and there can be specific antibodies against the EBV prove. These antibodies are substances of the immune system, which fit exactly on this type of virus. They are the proof that the body tries to defend itself against these pathogens. In rarer cases come to visible symptoms such as rash, yellowing of the skin (jaundice), or an enlarged spleen, which can palpate externally even. Because of strep throat often occurring and typical blood disorders older textbooks and articles often speak of a so-called Monocytic synonymous with glandular fever. This term is now outdated. We now know that the proliferation of white blood cells does not come through a propagation of the monocytes into being, but that it is in the defense cells to lymphocytes, which are due to the rapid formation somewhat deformed. For this reason it is also called Pfeiffer cells or atypical lymphocytes. back to contents Additional information for you Glandular fever: Treatment

As the glandular fever is treated, see the contribution glandular fever – treatment. back to contents Glandular fever: clinical course and prognosis While the glandular fever in children runs often without symptoms, however, it is usually in childhood to primary infection. Especially in countries with lower (hygienic) standard of living, such as in Africa or South America are virtually all infants already with the mononucleosis virus (EBV) infection. Although it rarely comes to symptoms in young children, it is believed that due to the EBV infection, the risk for some blood cancers (for example, B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease) increases. In very rare cases, the glandular fever is chronic. That is, the symptoms persist for months or even years. This rare history is however observed mainly in Asia and is very unusual for Europeans. Problems with the direct symptoms of glandular fever are more common in industrialized nations, as occurs here the infection on average at a much later stage of life. The disease is then often difficult. As a rule, glandular fever proceeds without complications and the need for any special treatment. However, there is suspicion of a complication, or when blood values ​​deteriorate particularly strong, patients are often treated for monitoring in the hospital.

Most heals from a glandular fever without permanent sequelae. Only very rarely causes glandular fever and its complications cause permanent damage. back to contents Was this page helpful to you? Thanks for your review. Read more about glandular fever Page of 4 Date: 19:02:14 resources / editors Author: Fabian Dupont Template: Dr. med.

Beate Eigler Sources: Duale Reihe – Internal Medicine, Thieme-Verlag, 3rd edition (2013) W. Pieper, Internal Medicine, Springer-Verlag, 2nd edition (2013) Duale Reihe, Microbiology; Thieme-Verlag 4th Edition Dual row- Pädiatre, Thieme-Verlag 4th edition (2012) Speer, pediatrics, Springer-Verlag, 4th edition (2012) W. Rath, disease during pregnancy, Thieme-Verlag (2005) V. Briese, diseases in pregnancy: Manual of Diagnosis A-Z, De Gruyter (2010) DEGAM GUIDELINE NECK PAIN: 12/10/2013: http://www.

degam. de/uploads/media/LL-14_Langfassung_ZD. pdf American Diagnosis and Treatment Guidelines: 12/10/2014: http://www. aafp. org/afp/2004/1001/p1279. html Uptodate. com: 10:12:13 http://www. uptodate. com/contents/infectious-mononucleosis-mono-in-adults-and-adolescents-beyond-the-basics MayoClinic: 10:12:13 http://www. mayoclinic.

com/health/mononucleosis/DS00352/DSECTION=treatments-and-drugs Michigan university med school. 10:12:13 http://www. med. umich. edu/digitallab/m2pathlabs/hemepath/PDF%20files/2004%20concise%20review%20mononucleosis. pdf New England journal of Medicine: 10:12:13 http://nuhem. com/emlinks/LLSA%20Articles%202012/Infectious%20Mononucleosis. pdf PubMed: EBV in the SS: Polling 28/12/2013 http://www. ncbi. nlm.

nih. gov/pubmed/16305564 more on the subject achalasia When achalasia is a rare chronic disease of the esophagus. Read all about signs, risks \x26amp; more! more achillodynia Achillodynia called a painful injury of the Achilles tendon and is one of the most common sports injuries. They find out . . . more

achondroplasia Achondroplasia is a rare genetic disease in which especially the upper arm and thigh bones are shortened. Here you can read everything . . . more ADHD Impulsively, inattentive, fidgety – Children with ADHD often corners on. Read everything important to the Attention Deficit Disorder. more obesity Obesity (obesity) is a chronic disease with a high risk of complications. Read everything important about it!


Fever blisters – Herpes – help Which cell salts?

What Schuessler salts can be “cold sores – herpes” help? In “cold sores – herpes” can be applied following Schuessler Salts: Schuessler Salt No. 3 -. Iron phosphate Schuessler Salt No. 3, Ferrum phos, called the salt of the immune system. Schuessler Salt No 8 -. Sodium chloride Schuessler Salt No. 8, Sodium chloride, called the salt hydration. Sodium chloride has a regulating effect on the water balance of the body. Schuessler Salt No.

10 -. Sodium sulphate Schuessler Salt No. 10, sodium sulphate, called the salt excretion. Also referred to as the biochemical Ausleitungsmittel. The action relates to all the organs of elimination. In addition, help the body to excrete excess water. Schuessler Salt No. 11 -. Silica Schuessler Salt No. 11, Silica, called the salt of the hair, skin and connective tissue. It is the Schuessler salt, the special cosmetic effects brings: The connective tissue is strengthened, skin and hair, toenails and fingernails are beautiful again.

Return to Index Previous entry: fever blisters next: cold sores herpes simplex More items from us: Muscle aches Manganum sulfuricum Nr. 17 convalescence Calcarea Nr. 22, Calcium fluorite Nr. 1, Calcium phosphate No. 2, calcium sulphate No. 12, Ferrum phos no.

3, Kali Muriaticum Nr. 4, potassium jodatum Nr. 15, potassium phos no. 5, Potassium sulphate no. 6, magnesium phosphoricum Nr. 7, sodium chloride Nr. 8, sodium phosphate No. 9, sodium sulphate Nr. 10 Silicea Nr. 11 Which is the right remedy for “fever blisters – Herpes” Selection of Schuessler salt One can simultaneously use up to 3 Schuessler Salts optimal, it is only to take one.

How often should I use the Schuessler salt? Three to six times a day, one to three tablets Taking high doses every minute to every ten minutes a tablet. The tablets should be slowly dissolve in the mouth.

Early detection of changes in the immune system keeps astronauts and patients on Earth from

Early detection of changes in the immune system keeps astronauts and patients on Earth from a painful Gürtelrose4 VZV-infected cells MeWo: Evident are the typical, induced by the herpes virus, polynuclear giant cells. The cultures were stained for the detection of RNA (red) in the cytoplasm with acridine orange. 1 March 2012 The physiological, emotional and psychological stresses of space flight can weaken the immune system and reactivate a virus that causes shingles, a disease that is associated with painful rashes. NASA has developed a method for early detection of changes in the immune system so that you can begin treatment before showing the painful lesions. The method is suitable for astronauts as well as for people on Earth. Through early detection and early treatment onset shortens the duration of the disease and it is rare to long-term consequences. For stays in space, some aspects of the human immune system change: The nonspecific defense, so the first line of defense of the body against pathogens, as well as certain components of the cellular defense are reduced in astronauts. Although infectious diseases occur during short stays in space on either the number increases even with particularly severe cases. However, the NASA scientists do not exclude adverse effects on the immune system in long-term missions in space. In healthy individuals, it is difficult to find suitable biomarkers or indicators of the state of the immune system. Studies on astronauts have shown that herpes viruses are especially useful for early detection of changes in the immune system.

Eight kinds of herpes viruses can colonize the human body, and practically every person carries one or more of these types of viruses in themselves. Herpes Viruses cause various diseases, the herpes simplex virus (HSV), for example the known “cold sores”, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), infectious mononucleosis and the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) chickenpox and shingles. In immunocompromised patients, herpes viruses can cause several types of cancer, such as carcinomas, lymphoproliferative disorders and others. According to CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA) cancer every year one million people in the US to shingles, and 100,000 to 200,000 of these patients postherpetic or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN or PZN) developed an extremely painful and in some cases, severe restrictions leading disease can last months or years. The other seven herpesviruses can inhabit as the varicella-zoster virus in various body tissues and long remain inactive, but are in a weakened immune system becomes active again and solve disease from. The most common reason for a slowing immune system is the age, but also chronic stress affects the immune system and increases the risk of secondary diseases such as caused by the varicella-zoster virus shingles. Other reasons for a weakened immune system are chemotherapy, organ transplants and infections such as HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The reactivation of dormant viruses is now regarded as an important indicator of clinically relevant changes in the immune system. Studies in immunodeficient patients show that these secrete the Epstein-Barr virus in their saliva in 90 times higher concentration than healthy. Astronauts wear as at least 95 percent of all adults worldwide herpesviruses in itself. Have herpesviruses So in the body fluids of astronauts demonstrated, this is a valuable biomarker for the state of their immune system. One assumes that the observed weakening of the immune system due to the various stress factors which act in a space stay on the astronauts. Researchers at the Johnson Space Center of NASA have found that in a space of stay four types of human herpes viruses are reactivated and appear in the body fluids.

The fact that the virus awaken from their latent state and can develop into active infectious agents, is due to the reduced cellular defense. The viruses multiply and be excreted in the saliva, urine or blood. By a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the virus-specific PCR assay, one can detect the sought viruses, quantify and identify the viral DNA. PCR assays are highly sensitive, highly specific, and allow the selective replication of viral DNA sequences. In the saliva of astronauts for the first time succeeded in showing reactivated varicella zoster virus in asymptomatic individuals. The precipitated by the astronauts in saliva virus proved to be intact and infectious. That is, it represents a danger for uninfected persons. The PCR technology has also been used to study a disease caused by varicella zoster virus shingles in patients from the general population. In the study, doctors at the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston and NASA scientists of the Johnson Space Center took part, the virus on the day of treatment initiation could be detected in the saliva of all 54 shingles patients. By antiviral therapy pain, and rash decreased, as did the number of viruses. The study also showed that more than cut the viral load of less heavily loaded shingles patients prior to treatment with the viral load of the loaded stronger among healthy astronauts. That is, in a space mission is a real risk of a shingles outbreak due reactivated varicella zoster virus. With the new early detection method was at a 21-year-old patient quickly diagnosed shingles and treatment initiated.

Thanks to the rapid intervention occurred in the patient no rashes, and also the duration of painful acute phase could be shortened. In another NASA study varicella zoster virus (PBMC) were using the PCR in all 25 investigated shingles patients in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells discovered. This was demonstrated for the first time that shingles usually manifests (virus in the blood) in the form of viraemia. However, an extensive, complex and therefore unsuitable for space flight equipment is required for PCR assays. In order to solve this problem and to examine astronauts in space on reactivated viruses, NASA developed a rapid method for the detection of varicella zoster virus in body fluids, for which a patent application has already been submitted. only a small saliva sample is required for the new process, which is mixed with specific reagents. Are varicella zoster virus present, the sample turns red. The method allows early detection before the onset of skin lesions. Antiviral therapy may therefore be initiated very quickly what the nerve damage is reduced and prevents the open outbreak of the disease. Also, a post-herpetic neuralgia is expected to – so the expectations – can be prevented thereby. The time required for the new process equipment is also suitable for space missions as for surgeries on Earth. Furthermore, the process can be modified easily and use to detect other viruses in saliva, urine, blood and spinal fluid. Its sensitivity and specificity is based on an antibody-antigen reaction.

In another joint study, researchers from NASA and the Health Science Center of the University of Colorado in Denver developed a sampling method for the detection of stress hormones in saliva, which can be used in space shuttle missions. These saliva samples are collected and dried on each strip of filter paper. The dried samples remain up to six months stable at room temperature and can be analyzed after returning to Earth. In the test, the content of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is measured, two important hormones for the stress and immune regulation. The filter paper is also suitable for proteins and other molecules to be tested in saliva. Currently, the filter paper in booklet form is already being used at universities and government laboratories for collecting saliva samples. The studies support the use of this method for public health for the prevention of painful and potentially momentous disease that hits in the US alone up to one million people per year.