Test system HSV 1 \x26amp; 2 IgG Plus – ZEUS Scientific

Test system HSV 1 \x26amp; 2 IgG Plus – ZEUS Test system HSV 1 \x26amp; 2 IgG Plus An immunoassay based on microparticles and multiplexing for IgG antibodies to viral antigens Herpes Simplex 1 and 2 Product Number A97101G PROPER USE The AtheNA Multi-Lyte® HSV 1 \x26amp; 2 IgG Plus Zeus Scientific, Inc. aims qualitative detection of the presence or absence of IgG antibodies HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human serum. The test is indicated for sexually active adults and pregnant women, as an aid in the presumptive diagnosis of Herpes Simplex 1 and Herpes Simplex 2. The predictive value of positive or negative depends on the prevalence in the population and the likelihood of HSV 1 and HSV-2 before the test. The test is not intended to be used for the selection of donors or self-test. In performance of this assay has not been established for use in the pediatric population, immunocompromised patients, for use by ambulatory care facilities or for use with automated equipment. SIGNIFICANCE AND BACKGROUND Infections Herpes Simplex virus are caused by two distinct antigenic types, HSV-1 and HSV-2 (1). Both HSV types are common human pathogens. HSV-1 is usually associated with infections in the oropharyngeal area and eyes while HSV-2 causes most genital and neonatal infections (1,2). However, HSV-2 can occasionally isolated from the oropharyngeal area (3) and from 15% to 20% of primary genital infections may be caused by HSV-1 (1, 4). HSV infections are transmitted by virus containing secretions through close personal contact. HSV infections, both primary and recurrent are often subclinical and asymptomatic.

Excretion of the virus is the most important factor contributing to the spread of the virus (2). The primary HSV-1 infections of the oral mucosa usually occur in children under 5 years of age (2). Most infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic infections are characterized by gingivostomatitis associated with fever, malaise and swollen cervical lymph nodes and soft (2). numerous small vesicles in the oral mucosa develop, ulcerate and heal in about two weeks. The most common form of recurrent HSV-1 is the herpes sores in which vesicles appear on the lips, nostrils or skin around the mouth (1, 2). Symptoms of genital HSV infections are accompanied by numerous ulcerative lesions pain, fever, and lymphadenopathy dysuria (6). The most severe complication of genital HSV infection is neonatal disease (2). In mothers with an active primary infection, the risk of transmission to infants can reach 40% (5). Approximately 69-80% of infants who develop neonatal herpes are born to women who are asymptomatic of genital HSV infection at the time of birth (5). Genital herpes is also problematic in sexually active adults and that often the disease is transmitted in the absence of symptoms (13). HSV antibody testing is indicated for sexually active adults to identify those at risk of acquiring or transmitting HSV HSV and other low risk of acquiring and transmitting infections HSV neonatal herpes (7,13) pregnant mothers. Although the combined culture with direct fluorescent antibody test (DFA) is definitive when making a diagnosis, timing and cultures should be obtained during periods of active disease to produce optimal recovery (8,9).

Serological procedures may be useful for diagnosis of primary HSV infections, and for determining evidence of past infection with HSV (10). However, many serological methods to determine HSV serostatus are unable to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. Because the type of HSV implicated in disease has ramifications for prognosis (11. 12), it is important to specify the subtype. The specific serologic tests for HSV type were developed using the significant difference between the gG-1 protein gG HSV 1 and HSV-2 protein 2 (10). The first applications of specific serologic tests for HSV type HSV-1 and HSV-2 demonstrated that benefited tests gilts, recurrent and asymptomatic infections as a means of definitive diagnosis and counseling appropriate patient (13). The specific serological assays HSV type are useful in establishing or confirming the diagnosis of infections HSV-1 or 2 in asymptomatic persons, those with symptomatic lesions but negative culture, and those with atypical presentations (14). Specific tests the type of HSV are recommended for sexually active adults and pregnant women since the presence of antibodies to HSV is a reliable indicator that an individual can be infected with HSV and capable of transmitting the virus to others (14) . Assay principle AtheNA Multi-Lyte HSV Plus system AtheNA Multi-Lyte HSV 1 \x26amp; 2 IgG Plus Zeus Scientific, Inc. is a multiplexed assay designed to detect and differentiate IgG antibodies specific gG-1 and HSV gG-2 of HSV in human serum. The test procedure involves two incubation steps: 1. The patient sera were diluted and tested diluted sera are incubated in a vessel containing a multiplexed mixture of the microsphere suspension. The multiplexed bead suspension contains a mixture of distinguishable sets of polystyrene microspheres.

The antigen-specific gG-1 and HSV-2 gG protein are conjugated to the primary set of microspheres. The microsphere mixture also contains a bead set designed to detect non-specific antibodies in the patient sample (if present) and four separate bead sets used for assay calibration. If present in patient sera, HSV antibodies will bind to the corresponding set of microspheres immobilized antigens. The microspheres are rinsed to remove non-reactive serum proteins. 2. goat anti-human IgG conjugated with phycoerythrin (Fc chain specific) is added to the vessel and the plate is incubated. The conjugate will react with IgG antibody immobilized on the microspheres in step 1. Then mircroesferas suspension is analyzed by the AtheNA Multi- Lyte® instrument. The assembly or set of microspheres are sorted (identified) and the amount of reporter molecule (PE conjugate) is determined for each bead set. By using Intra-Well Calibration Technology® (intrapozuelo calibration technology), sets internal calibration bead is used to set the trial court. The raw fluorescence of each type of microsphere antigen gG-1 and HSV-2 gG is measured and compared relative to the calibrator in cutting. KIT COMPONENTS Reactive Reagents: (All reactive reagents contain sodium azide as a preservative at a concentration of 0. 1% w / v).

1. multiplexed bead suspension. Ready for use, 5. 5 mL bottle. The suspension contains polystyrene beads separate distinguishable 5. 6 micron conjugated with recombinant protein antigen gG-1 HSV-1, 55 kDa molecular weight and the recombinant protein antigen gG-2 HSV molecular weight 31 kDA. The microsphere mixture also contains a bead set designed to detect non-specific antibodies and / or IgM antibodies antireumatoide Factor (RF) in the patient sample (if present) in four separate bead sets used for calibration trial. 2. antihuman IgG conjugated with phycoerythrin goat (Fc specific chain). Ready to use, 15 mL amber bottle. Note: The bead suspension and conjugate are light sensitive reagents. Both have been packaged in containers protected from light. Normal exposures experienced during the course of performing the assay will not affect assay performance.

Do not expose these reagents to strong sources of visible light unnecessarily. 3. Control serum positive for HSV specific human HSV-1 and HSV-2. One, 0. 2 mL vial. 4. Control of human HSV negative serum. One, 0. 2 mL vial. 5. SAVe Diluent® (Diluent SAVe) A 50 mL bottle containing phosphate buffered saline. Ready to use. NOTE, the sample diluent will change color in the presence of serum.

6. Wash Buffer Concentrate: Dilute 1 part concentrate + 9 parts deionized water. A bottle containing 50mL mL 10X concentrated phosphate buffered saline. Nonreactive components: 1. A platen 96-well filtration for rinsing the microspheres. 2. Data Labels: One label is adhered to the inside lid of the kit box and a second label is inside the kit box. 3. Insert providing instruction packet for use. 4. CD calibration. A compact disc that includes the calibration values ​​specific kit batches required for specimen analysis and quality control testing. Materials required but not included: 1

Sore throat (night) | Causes, Treatment \x26amp; Advice

Sore throat: In everyday life © PantherMedia / Karel Miragaya Under sore throat we understand the different symptoms that occur in the neck and throat. These include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, or burning, a range of symptoms that we very frequently combine with a cold. Frequently sore throat by an inflammatory process in the throat caused (pharyngitis), which is why the term pharyngitis is sometimes used to mean with a sore throat. Particularly troublesome sore throat can be, if they occur at night and thus disrupt sleep. The following is a rough overview of the most common causes of acute and nightly sore throat is given and shown how they can be supportive therapy. Causes of nocturnal sore throat In principle, a distinction caused by infection sore throat between a viral and bacterial origin. Viruses include up to 80% of the most common pathogens that cause sore throat können. Influenza-, herpes simplex and Epstein-Barr viruses are among the most representatives. A viral infection is self-limiting, which means that the symptoms after about a week disappear on their own [1]. The second major group of pathogens that may be responsible for a sore throat, are bacteria.

Here, a bacterial strain especially for acute inflammation of the tonsils (tonsillitis) particularly the β-hemolytic group A streptococci are emphasized, is responsible. In addition to sore throat fatigue, fever and swollen lymph nodes are more typical symptoms of angina [2]. To determine the causative agent, the general practitioner may take a throat swab, which is examined microbiologically. Haemolytic streptococci are distinguished here by a destruction of the red blood pigment hemoglobin in the culture medium [3] used for the cultivation of bacteria. Besides angina Scarlet is also triggered by streptococci. However, the bacteria are here in a position to form an additional toxin, in addition to sore throat and said angina symptoms for typical red “strawberry tongue” provides [4]. If tonsillitis heaped on, is spoken by a chronic tonsillitis. Nocturnal sore throat can therefore occur more frequently in the context of infection. Nocturnal heating the bedroom leads to a drying out of the air and thus the mouth and throat, which can also lead to nocturnal neck complaints. When reflux disease (gastroesophageal reflux disease, also called GERD) patients have in addition to heartburn, hoarseness and cough usually heaped sore throat. When the body is, the acidic gastric juice can easily reach via the esophagus into the throat, which causes the symptoms, especially at night. [5] The reasons are, for example, high-fat dinners, wine consumption or insufficient muscular closure between the stomach and esophagus [6]. Treatment of nocturnal sore throat

Just a GERD can be reduced by simple measures General: High-fat meals, wine, coffee and other food refluxbegünstigende should be especially at night, shunned. At night it can already help to store increases the upper body and wide, not constricting clothes to wear [6]. Smoking and consumption of sharp or hot foods should also be avoided if acute sore throat occur with an infection of the upper respiratory tract. Pain lozenges can provide locally for help. The active substance benzocaine is a local anesthetic (locally acting anesthetic), reduces symptomatic pain perception in the throat and is included for example in lozenges DOLO Dobendan, DORITHRICIN or NEO-ANGIN. Similarly helpful may be sucking ice cubes. In tablets and oral sprays additionally disinfecting compounds such as cetylpyridinium contained. Also disinfectant and soothing effect gargles and tees with agrimony, chamomile or sage. [7] Have proved too cold neck wrap that inhibit inflammation. For a cloth dampened with cold water cloth is wound under a scarf or towel around his neck and worn overnight. As with any infection speaks against medically adequate fluid intake. If the sore throat also fever, fatigue or swelling in the neck area, which are covered with whitish documents, can speak for angina, which is a bacterial infection and should be investigated by a doctor. Use of a pharyngeal swab the pathogens can be detected and, if necessary, be fought with antibiotics.

A sick leave and the associated required bedrest also support the healing process and should not be taken lightly. Recurrent, so frequent, recurrent tonsillitis can be prevented by surgical removal almond (tonsillectomy) [2]. note Many patients hope for a physician visit rapid relief of symptoms by antibiotic therapy. However, antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections, and therefore not a panacea for all forms of sore throat. Affected parties should be aware that antibiotics are not prescribed as prophylaxis and, if necessary, are to be taken over the entire period prescribed by the doctor. Too short oral or unnecessary prescription of antibiotics can the development of resistance, so the development to antibiotics resistant strains of bacteria, support [3]. Treatment options for sore throat Sources: Frank H. Mader, General Practitioner and Practice, Springer-Verlag, 2014, p. 43 Dietmar Thurnher et al, Otolaryngology – A symptom-oriented textbook, Springer-Verlag, 2011, pp 52nd

Fritz H. Kayser et al. , Case textbook Medical Microbiology, Georg Thieme Verlag, 2010 p. 251. Thurnher (2014): S. 53rd Mader (2010): S. 190th Gerd Herold: internal medicine, Gerd Herold, 2015 S. 434th Maria Treben, Health through God’s pharmacy, Ennsthaler Verlag, 2011, pp 56th  Important NOTE The information provided on Erkaeltet.

info available as well as comments and contributions can not and must not be used for self-diagnosis and / or an independent selection and use or discontinuation of medicines, other healthcare products and treatment methods. Many symptoms and complaints may occur in various diseases. For reliable diagnosis and treatment always a doctor should be consulted. The information on Erkaeltet. info available content are carefully prepared and will be reviewed and updated periodically for accuracy. However, the findings in the medical field are constantly changing. We therefore assume no liability for the completeness, correctness, accuracy and timeliness of all content on the website. Was this article helpful? We appreciate your feedback as it is for us a valuable support in ensuring the long-term quality of our content. This article has been 7 ratings on an average 3. 86 points Thank you for your positive feedback! We are very pleased that we could help you.

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Lip / nose herpes for newborn life-threatening? | Pediatrician Dr. Andreas Busse

Dear Dr. Busse, For two days we make endless worry wg. our daughter (now 18 days old). Our 7 year old son since last week Herpes on the lip and nose! We take great care that our son as much as possible steers clear of the little ones, which of course does not always succeed. So it was on 23. 12. also for this event: Our son fässt is often in the face, so we can not rule out that he has possibly berüht his affected with herpes skin before he touched the little mouse. He wanted his sister caress and took her into his mouth, as the Small Hunger had and the breast examined. Now we worry whether this event can lead to the fact that our daughter has been infected with herpes. We are now considering strongly on whether we should go to the hospital but to possibly ask there for a blood test! How do you assess the risk?

The internet seems to be reading horrible things that infection with herpes can lead to death in a newborn. Please help us with your advice on! How should we behave now on? What symptoms is possibly to be expected (fever blisters) ? ! Thank you so much! Marti-Matt on 25. 12. 2013 Answer: Re: lip / nose herpes for newborn life-threatening? Dear M. ,

Relax! Your little one has most likely a nest protecting you and a serious herpes infection is apart from the infection of genital herpes the mother during birth an absolute rarity. All the best! Reply Dr. Andreas Busse on 25/12/2013 Similar questions to pediatrician Dr. buses – Baby and Child Health: Hello Dr. buses, this is possibly a “stupid” question but I’d rather play it safe. I have about 1 times in cold sores. I am in the 9th months pregnant and now I have washed all the baby stuff. This morning I had a fairly dry upper lip and . .

. Ankup 21/08/2011 Tags: newborn, lips Good day, my daughter (23 months) has repeatedly correct blue lips (not just a little, but almost all the way down to his chin and high up to the nose) and cold hands. Very often the after nap as though she has been lying under the blanket. She arrived in the birthplace . . . Dolmadakia 09/12/2013 Keywords: lips Dear Dr. med. Coach, I hope you can help me further.

My friends finally have a child, now is the baby heart disease and has only 1 kidney, which is also very weak. Can you please empfeheln where you can turn to with such problems. The . . . Ekaterina black 01. 12. 2013 Keywords: Newborn Hello, my daughter (3 years old) were found Yersinia. Also a check-up after 10 days resulted in solid defecation still Yersinia. I will release the sibling in the next few days. How dangerous are the Yersinia for the baby and for .

. . pflaume79 22. 11. 2013 Keywords: Newborn Good day sir buses, my husband has a lip ne little inflammation around 5 mm are likely from an inflamed beard comes but I also prefer cold sores into consideration. My husband had in the last 10 years maybe 2 times a bubble, I . . . Nina5223 22. 11. 2013

Keywords: lips Dear Dr. Busse, my 10 days old was today. For some time with my parents Following on much that my father has a cold sore on your mouth. He cuddled the little ones and even kissed him. What I now have to pay? How long is . . . mini-naddel 19/11/2013 Keywords: Newborn Hi, One of my now 8 months old twins (born in 35. ssw) makes me worry unfortunately something.

It came with a pda in the world and had initial breath misfires seizures with zyanostischen. By 3 months he was to us in the heart clinic. There was found the . . . niti0206 06/11/2013 Keywords: lips My daughter is now 8. 5 months old and she has very often the tongue between the lips, especially if they play or the mouth is slightly open. The physiotherapist at babyschwimmen has recently said “tongue clean” Has what can this mean a sign . . . Pepsi06 10/23/2013

Keywords: lips Dear Dr. Busse, my son is 2 weeks old, from 8th to 9th day he got almost overnight a hemangioma on her face, about 1×1 mm in size, about 1 cm from the right corner of his mouth. Although it is no longer grown in the meantime, but feels slightly increased. Our . . . simoneva 10/20/2013 Keywords: Newborn Good day, I do not in the last weeks 2 times noticed that my son (21 months) had bluish lips slightly, even as also around the mouth. But then I realized that he had Icy cold feet and hands. He was previously a few minutes to the fresh air. At the second time .

. . carolin1986 04/10/2013 Keywords: lips The last 10 questions for Dr. med. Andreas Busse

Mucosal lesions in the mouth

Mach times “Ahh! ” Infections of the mouth come in children sometimes BananaStock / RYF In and on a small child’s mouth at times adventurous things play from: blisters on the tongue, coverings in the buccal cavity, ulcers on the mucosa. This is not unusual, because in infancy travels so just about everything in the mouth, which is not screwed. And whether by sweets from the street or building blocks of other children – infection dangers lurk everywhere. Usually the immune system is armed against many pathogens. But sometimes it may yet lead to infections. In addition, there are other oral mucosal changes. Some common include: Oral thrush If oral thrush is an infection of the oral mucosa by yeasts, the child relates preferably in infancy. “When babies drink worse than usual at the breast or from the bottle, which can be the first sign,” says Dr.

Barbara Teichmann, pediatrician from Leipzig and spokeswoman for the National Association of Child and Adolescent Physicians Saxony. It is characteristic of the infection that form whitish, creamy layers on the tongue or in the cheek pouches. These yeasts are generally problematic, they even belong to a functioning oral flora. If the immune system but weakened, for example by a previous antibiotic treatment, the fungus can proliferate. Since thrush is contagious, parents should definitely pay attention to enhanced hygiene. “The immune system of a healthy adult keeps the fungus in the mouth in check,” said Teichmann. But adults can pass on the fungus, for example by lick the pacifier and put the child in the mouth. Thrush should examine a doctor in any case. “The relevant bodies are ausgepinselt with an anti-fungal gel,” said Teichmann. Treatment with the antifungal drug should consistently unless carried out as recommended by the doctor. Cold sores The first infection – caused by the herpes simplex 1 virus (HSV-1) – is often symptomless. In rare cases, when the initial infection but also to a distinct disease with blisters in the mouth and fever.

But no matter how the first meeting with herpes runs: The viruses remain in the body and can become active again during stress or other illnesses. Experts estimate that there are already at 80 percent of the biennial antibodies against HSV-1 in the blood. This means that they have undergone a herpes infection. “Many do not realize that they carry the virus. But it is one of the most common infections in children, “said Children Dentist Dr. Jacqueline Esch from Munich. Especially dangerous the virus for newborns is: Come with herpes blisters in contact, there may be a life-threatening infection. “Why should wear adults with herpes shortly after birth a surgical mask if they have contact with the baby,” says Teichmann. Later cold sore is no longer as dangerous, but extremely uncomfortable – and easily transferable. “In most cases, it starts with a tingling in the lips,” explains Teichmann the course. “Then a bubble developed. Once this split open, fluid escapes, it’s contagious. “Therefore advises the expert to increased awareness and hygiene.

Moreover, small children should not be in the day care center or kindergarten – even if they show other than the cold sores no other symptoms. To quickly take the little ones in kindergarten toys or bottles of the other in the mouth. “Since the risk of transmission is too large. ” The child must not everybody cold sore to the doctor if it otherwise has no signs of illness. This is important, however, in babies when the bubbles occur in sensitive areas such as near the eyes, and if further symptoms to come, such as fever. aphthous Canker sores are small, yellow-whitish specks or bubbles on red background. You can be extremely painful and attack the buccal mucosa, but also the tongue, palate or gums. Aphthous ulcers may occur repeatedly. The causes are not entirely clear. The trigger several factors may play a role: “Some people get stress, others after drinking citrus or small mucosal injury,” said Children Dentist Esch. “It often affects children, and whose parents suffer less. ”

If canker sores on for the first time, parents should the child to the doctor to rule out other diseases. The sores usually disappear after one to two weeks of alone. “For the pain, especially when eating and drinking, pediatricians often prescribe a gel with easy local numbing agent,” said Teichmann. Hand, foot and mouth disease The hand, foot and mouth disease is a common viral infection in children. The disease with the unusual name causes sores in the mouth and – one or two days later – even lesions on the hands and feet. “Typical are reddish spots and small nodules on the palms and soles,” says Teichmann. Sometimes it can also occur on the buttocks, knees or elbows. The pediatrician can diagnose the disease and rule out other diseases. In many children, the infection runs harmless and lasts for about one week ago. As with mouth ulcers but often falls affected children eating and drinking difficult. Teichmann: “this disease is treated similarly to the trench mouth with a pain relieving gel. I recommend cool, smooth foods.

Pay particular attention to drink plenty of fluids, such as in the form of cold milk. “