Herpes Virus “Dr. Oscar Santis L.

WHAT IS HERPES? Genital herpes is a contagious disease caused by type 2 (HSV-2) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Most genital herpes are caused by HSV-2. Most people with HSV-1 or HSV-2 no signs. If signs occur, they appear as small blisters on the genitals. The blisters break, leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal. It tends to recur periodically. You can stay indefinitely in the body, outbreaks tend to decrease as the years pass. It is a very common condition that has now increased significantly by the sexual freedom of youth and non correct use of protective elements. In these times is seen to appear from 12 years, one out of five adolescents and adults, have had genital HSV infection. Infection genital HSV-2 is more common in women (approximately one out of four women) than among men (almost one out of five). This may be because it is more likely that transmission occurs male to female transmission from women to men. TYPES OF VIRUS

HSV-1 and HSV-2 can be found in ulcers caused by viruses and released by them, but between outbreaks the virus can also be released by the skin that does not seem affected or do not have ulcers. Usually, a person can only be infected with HSV-2 during sexual contact with someone who has an infection with HSV-2 genital. Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore and may not know they are infected. HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, but it more commonly causes infections of the mouth and lips, also called “fever blisters. ” It can be caused by oral-genital or genital-genital contact with a person who has HSV-1 infection. Outbreaks of HSV-1 genital recur less regularly than outbreaks of genital HSV-2. Most people infected with HSV-2 are unaware they have the infection. However, if signs and symptoms occur during the first outbreak, they can be quite pronounced. The first outbreak occurs within the following transmission of the virus two weeks and sores typically heal within two to four weeks. You can give flu, including fever and swollen glands symptoms. Most people with HSV-2 infection may have very mild signs that they do not even realize or confused with insect bites or another skin condition. Most people who have been diagnosed with a first episode of genital herpes will have several (typically four or five) outbreaks (symptomatic recurrences) within a period of one year. Usually these recurrences decrease in frequency as time passes.

It can cause the repeated presence of genital ulcers, can be severe in people with immunocompromised systems. Frequently causes psychological distress in people who know they are infected. It can contribute to the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. It makes people more susceptible to HIV infection and causes people living with HIV more infectious. Genital HSV can cause potentially fatal infections in newborns. It is important that women avoid contracting herpes during pregnancy because the occurrence of a first episode during pregnancy causes a greater risk of the virus being transmitted to the baby. If a woman has active genital herpes at delivery it is usually performed a cesarean delivery. The signs and symptoms associated with HSV-2 can vary widely. Doctors can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical, and by obtaining a sample from an ulcer sent for laboratory analysis. It can be difficult to diagnose infections if there is no clear outbreak. Blood tests, which detect HSV-1 or HSV-2 may be useful, although the results may not definitional. There is no treatment that can cure herpes, but antiviral medications can shorten and prevent outbreaks during the time the person takes the medication. Daily treatment for symptomatic herpes can reduce the possibility of transmission to sexual partners of infected people.

The safest way to avoid transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital herpes, is to abstain from sexual contact or have a lasting relationship with a stable and only couple with evidence (-) and who is not infected. Correct and consistent use of latex condoms reduces the risk of contracting herpes only if the infected area and the area of ​​potential exposure is protected. It is possible that the condom may not cover all infected areas, even correct and consistent use of latex condoms can guarantee protection against genital herpes. People with herpes should abstain from sexual activity with uninfected sexual partners when you have injuries or other symptoms of herpes. It is important to know that even if the person has no symptoms can still infect their sexual partners. This should be advised to sexual partners of infected people. Sexual partners should get tested to determine if they are infected with HSV. A screening test for HSV-2 whose results are positive indicates that most likely have genital herpes infection. This applied to herpes is also considered in condyloma oncogenic virus (human papilloma virus or HPV). (EXTRACT http://www. cdc. gov/std/Spanish/STDFact-Herpes-s. htm#Whatis)

PTA forum online: neuropathy: nerve in need

neuropathy Nerve in need itch By Susanne Poth / permanent and tingling toes and legs, as if an ant colony darüberkrabbelt. This nightmare scenario many people must endure with neuropathy daily. What causes this insidious disease, which treatment options are there, and what recommendations can PTA or pharmacist Pronounce? display When neuropathy is a disease of the central or peripheral nervous. Unlike the classic pain with an injury, inflammation or irritation of the healthy tissue has an important function as a warning signal, when the neuropathy pain-conducting system itself is damaged. By hyperexcitability of damaged nerves leads to the described irritation phenomena. In the industrialized nations, the number of people affected should be 2 to 4 percent and increases with age up to 8 percent. It seems regardless of gender, to be racial and socio-economic status. Many neuropathy patients suffer from itching and tingling of the legs and feet. To prevent damages, especially diabetics should inspect their feet daily for changes.

Photo: Lilly Pharma Holding GmbH Many sufferers suffer from constant itching or tingling of the legs and feet, sometimes with burning the soles, also called “burning feet”. In addition, irritation of touch, and motor functions, reduction in reflection, for example, paralysis of the eye muscles, muscle cramps and a decreased touch, temperature and pain. Typical of some neuropathic pain syndromes like trigeminal neuralgia or zoster neuralgia are spontaneous stabbing pain attacks. The nerve pain usually take in the disease process continuously and spread gradually throughout the nervous system (polyneuropathy). High risk for diabetics The most common cause of neuropathy is diabetes mellitus. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, it occurs as a result of sustained high blood sugar levels, because this damage in addition to the blood vessels and nerves. So about half of people with diabetes is affected by this disease, which can affect both the peripheral nerves and the autonomic nervous system. Later in this autonomic neuropathy organs damaged: So come incontinence, gastroparesis, or erectile dysfunction, and cardiac arrhythmias in the risk of cardiac arrest. Another cause of the damage to the nerves of chronic alcohol abuse or neurotoxins are eligible. Moreover neuropathies are often accompanying symptom of infections such as shingles, HIV or Lyme disease. Also permanent pressure on a nerve can cause malfunctions, such as the herniated disc or carpal tunnel syndrome.

If the nerve damage, an atypical activity and sensitization of afferent pain-sensitive nerve fibers is usually the result. Thus, the function of ion channels and pro-inflammatory substances changes are propagated released. Difficult diagnosis Asking the diagnosis of neuropathy, is difficult and requires a thorough history of the doctor expected. It is based on specific questionnaires, a neurological examination and sensitivity tests of vibration, shock and temperature perception. When indicated, the physician performs cardiovascular examinations and tests the function of the autonomic nervous system. As further diagnostics measuring the nerve conduction and electromyography come by the neurologist into consideration. Depending verdächtigtem trigger examine physicians whether a tumor or toxins cause discomfort. Causes of neuropathy Metabolic diseases such as diabetes Viral diseases such as shingles (herpes zoster), HIV infection Mechanical nerve injuries caused by trauma, herniated disc, carpal tunnel syndrome Taking neurotoxic substances or poisons such as cytostatics, heavy metals or alcohol abuse

Inflammatory changes in the blood vessels (vasculitis), or of the nervous system Degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s or stroke Approximately 40 percent of all patients in pain clinics and pain clinics suffer from neuropathic pain. Standard analgesics not help most. By careful selection of the active ingredient and optionally a combination of various substances with other treatment options, however, can significantly alleviate by 30 to 50 percent of the pain. Therapeutic goal is to maintain or restore the sleep and quality of life and the working capacity of the patient. Symptoms of peripheral neuropathy light touch results in disproportionately severe pain (allodynia) Pain is perceived differently, such as tingling or pinprick (dysesthesia, paresthesia) pain sensitivity is either increased (hyperalgesia) or decreased (hypoalgesia) Pain remains after the releases consist (Hyperpathy) Is polyneuropathy result of another disease, such as diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse or poisoning is the causal therapy in the first place, which means a good glycemic control and abstinence from alcohol or detoxification. The most common drug classes of symptomatic therapy include tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline and imipramine, newer antidepressants from the group of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors such as duloxetine and venlafaxine and acting on neuronal calcium channels anticonvulsant pregabalin.

Diabetics should be tested regularly served by a podiatric specialist in foot care. Photo: Super Image Some patients received tramadol as the drug does not only affect the opioid, but also to the serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors. Depending on the intensity of pain doctors combine a opioid with a psychotropic drug. Only mild pain they cause a temporary therapy experiment with painkillers such as paracetamol or metamizol. If the neuropathic pain syndrome associated with an inflammatory component, but not in diabetic polyneuropathy, the patient can also take NSAIDs (NSAIDs) in addition. Based on the findings of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms in neuropathies develop scientists currently taking medication with other mechanisms of action, for example in the direction of a blockade of sodium and calcium channels. In recent years came with active substance patches containing local anesthetics, new therapeutic options on the market. So a lidocaine patch (Versatis®) was developed for the relief of neuropathic pain after healing of herpes zoster infection. After the skin symptoms have healed, the patient should apply the patch about six weeks. In parallel, researchers observed that the active substance capsaicin on vanilloid receptor initially triggers a burning sensation, but after repeated use affects pain relieving effect. From this they developed a prescription high dose capsaicin patch (Qutenza®), which is on the market since of 2010. The patch is suitable for HIV-associated neuropathies and neuralgia after herpes zoster infection, always has the skin intact.

For painful diabetic polyneuropathy, but the two patches according to the treatment guidelines are not suitable. substitution controversial For other ways to support the drug therapy, there are no clearly documented evidence of efficacy. With proven vitamin deficiency but a substitution therapy is helpful, alcoholics lacks example most vitamin B1. Patients with sensory loss can help the intake of alpha-lipoic acid. The substance is not a vitamin, but a coenzyme. In vitro and animal studies indicate an antioxidant protective function of lipoic acid against oxidative nerve damage. Also be first placebo-controlled human studies suggest that alpha-lipoic acid at least temporarily improve symptoms and individual parameters of nerve functions. In the current guideline neuropathy in diabetes, the use of the substance is not recommended due to lack of available data. In the future, earlier diagnosis The damage to the nerve pathways to recognize even before the first symptoms, to take early therapeutic countermeasures, is the goal of a new diagnostic method. A working group of the University of Rostock succeeded using a special microscope method to detect changes in the nerve center of the cornea of ​​the eye. From the image obtained is possible to draw conclusions on the extent of diabetic neuropathy.

Many patients turn to non-drug therapies, their action is not always clearly established. The effect depends on the type of neuropathic disease. For example, two-chamber baths stimulate circulation of the feet and thus contribute to pain relief. Physiotherapy and orthopedic aids that facilitate walking, and in particular the right shoes to reduce the risk of injury in patients with diabetic neuropathy. For the effectiveness of electrical nerve stimulation are effectiveness evidence justifying a therapeutic trial. These include transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), the frequency-modulated electromagnetic nerve stimulation (FREMS), a special form of TENS, and the high tone (nerve stimulation at higher frequencies). advice needed Complains a customer about sensory loss, numbness or canted pain, should recommend him to visit a doctor or neurologist PTA or pharmacist. This can clarify possible causes and prevent, for example, in infectious polyneuropathy through early causal therapy, the disease becomes chronic. Diabetics should be made aware of the increased risk of neuropathy and also noted that the optimum adjustment of blood glucose levels can slow the progression of the disease, especially in younger patients. Often, the nerves of the lower legs of the first affected, and it comes to diabetic foot ulcers. Patients complain of burning feet, drilling, stabbing or cramping pain that worsens at rest, be improved while running on the other hand. As a result of the discomfort of legs and feet sufferers often feel not when her feet were injured, for example by pressing shoes and pedicures.

Unnoticed infections are spreading, at the same time favoring existing circulatory problems yet. Not infrequently necrosis develop. According to the German Diabetes Center at the University of Dusseldorf in Germany lose therefore approximately 25,000 diabetics each year a foot or part of a leg. Maintain feet properly The advice to all diabetics is this: In order to prevent the development of diabetic neuropathy, they should – maintain their weight and blood pressure in the normal range, do not smoke and only drink alcohol excessively – besides the near normal control of blood sugar levels. Annually they should checked the neurological functions in their diabetologists. Particular attention is the feet. To prevent diabetic foot syndrome, the shoes should fit well and not cause bruising. Walking barefoot can lead to foot injuries. Diabetics should inspect their feet daily to changes and maintain the feet gently, is best supported by a specialist in medical pedicure. Podiatrists treat warts, calluses, corns or ingrown toenails. Cave: If the foot of a diabetic injured, there is always an emergency and must be treated urgently. /

Genitalijų herpeso kaltininkas – HSV-1 virusas

HSV virusų epidemiologija dramatiškai keičiasi. Prieš 30 metų dažniausiu moterų genitalijų herpeso sukėlėju buvo laikomas herpeso simplex viruso tipas 2 (HSV-2), o paskutiniųjų tyrimų rezultatai rodo, kad yra dažniausias kaltininkas HSV-1 virusas.  Prezervatyvų naudojimas herpeso perdavimo rizika sumažina perpus. Algirdo Kubaičio nuotr. Užsikrėtę 90 proc. gyventojų Žinomi you herpeso viruso Tipai HSV-1 ir HSV-2. Abu virusai yra labai panašūs, nes tai priklauso pačiai Herpesviridae šeimai ir vadinami paprastaisiais herpeso virusais – herpes simplex. HSV-1 virusas pažeidžia Burna, gerklę, veida, akis, CNS ir perduodamas kontaktiniu Budu. Virusas HSV 2 susijęs su lyties organų pažeidimais: genitalijų at išangės herpesu ir dažniausiai Plinta lytiniu Keliu. Rečiau pasitaiko herpeso landuonis (skausminga pirštų infekcija) akių (virusinis keratitas) smegenų, naujagimių herpesas. Virusai yra labai ir paplitę užkrečiami. Manoma, kad viruso HSV-1 turėtojai kai curious šalyse sudaro iki 90 proc.

gyventojų. Daugiau kaip 500 mln. žmonių pasaulyje yra infekuoti lytiniu Keliu perduodamu HSV-2 virusu. Nors HSV-1 yra dažnai įgyjamas vaikystėje buitinio Kontakto metu, Tačiau lytinis infekcijos perdavimo kelias sparčiai dažnėja. Prezervatyvai rizika sumažina perpus Moterys labiau nei vyrai linkusios įsigyti lytinių organų pažeidimus sukeliantį HSV-2 virusą. Nevartojančioms antivirusinių vaistų ar prezervatyvų rizika užsikrėsti nuo infekuoti vyro yra 8-10 proc. Rizika vyrui užsikrėsti nuo moters – 4-5 proc. Prezervatyvų naudojimas perdavimo rizika sumažina perpus. Derinant antivirusinius vaistus ir prezervatyvus tikimybė užsikrėsti sumažėja 75 proc. Amerikiečių mokslininkai iš Cincinačio universiteto (JAV) studijoje (Herpevac Trial of Women) analizavo 3438 moterų imuninį atsaką ir jo formas į pirminę HSV infekciją. Stebint pacientes 20 mėnesių, 127 (3,7 proc. ) Moterims buvo nustatytas HSV-1 virusas ir 56 (1.

6 proc. ) – HSV-2 virusas. Daugeliui (proc 74th – HSV-1 ir 63 proc -. HSV-2) infekuotų moterų išreikštų susirgimo požymių ar simptomų nustatyta nebuvo. Tarp moterų, kurioms nustatytas herpesas, 84 proc. buvo pažeisti lytiniai organai. Buvo nustatyta, kad jaunu moterų tarpe infekuotumas buvo dažnesnis HSV-1 HSV-2 virusu nei virusu (2. 5 vs 1. 1). Tai akivaizdžiai skyrėsi nuo 1993-1995 metais atliktų studijų duomenų, kuriuose santykis buvo Visiškai kitoks (atititinkamai 1. 0 vs 6. 8). Studijoje buvo nustatyti rasiniai infekuotumo HSV virusu skirtumai.

Atspindi seksualines internships Mokslininkai mano, kad HSV virusų epidemiologijos pasikeitimai atspindi seksualines internships tirtuose regionuose, o duomenys reikšmingi projektuojant ir diegiant HSV infekcijos gydymo ir prevencijos STRATEGIJA. Studijos rezultatai nuteikia sąlyginai optimistiškai, nes HSV-1 virusas daug rečiau pasireiškia kliniškai, Tačiau jis lengvai perduodamas naujagimiams. Ypač jei nėščiosios infekuojamos nuo lytinio partnerio paskutiniame nėštumo trimestre. “Iškrapšyti iš organizmo neįmanoma” Panevėžio infekcinės Ligoninės gydytoja infektologė N. Chmieliauskienė tvirtino, kad jokiomis šiuolaikinėmis priemonėmis herpeso viruso “iškrapštyti iš organizmo” neįmanoma, jei jau buvo kartą juo užsikrėsta. “Paprastai užsikrečiama vaikystėje. Pirmas Kartas Buna skausmingiausias, – aiškino gydytoja. – Virusas gydomas aciklovirais, bet herpesas visada lieka organizme ir išlenda, kai organizmas nusilpsta. Vaistai tik neleidžia jam išlįsti į paviršių “. Kaip apsisaugoti, kad herpeso virusas nepatektų į Organizma? “Artimai nekontaktuoti su užsikrėtusiais” – paprasta atsakymą pateikė N.

Chmieliauskienė. Pašnekovės teigimu, Si virusą turi didele dalis žmonių. Paklausta, ar pasikeistų herpeso Prevencija, jei būtų visuotinai pripažinta, kad genitalijų herpesą sukelia ne HPV-2, HPV bet 1 virusas, gydytoja atsakė skirtumo nematanti. Nes, nors yra virusai dviejų Tipu, bet jų Seima yra ta pati. vlmedicina. lt Šaltinis: http://bit. ly/V03D8r. Clin Infect Dis 2012 Design.

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome in North India – update

Many pathogens can cause an inflammation of the brain, especially in children. Among other things, the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes, especially in rural areas of South Asia. Outbreaks of such diseases have been observed in recent years repeatedly in eastern India. Mostly affected are infants. A recent study showed more than 16% of those infected with the herpes simplex virus, type I or type II. In 2. 6% of patients measles were detected as the underlying disease. Infection with the Japanese encephalitis virus or the dengue virus were found in 1. 5% and 0. 57%. (The New Indian Express 07:05. ) In a recent outbreak in the north of the state of West Bengal 693 diseases with 212 deaths have already been reported. Only in 44 of the 212 deaths suspected of Japanese Encephalitis.

(Sify News 13:08. ) From the state of Uttar Pradesh 1,856 diseases with 399 deaths have been reported since the beginning of the year. When patients how many actually existed a Japanese Encephalitis, is unclear. This also applies to the message of eight deaths in Araria district of Bihar state. (Times of India 22:09. , ProMED 30. 09. ) Confirmed JE case reports came from the state of Meghalaya. It was reported about 37 diseases with a fatality. (Web India 123 29. 08. ) In connection with a previous outbreak in Bihar has been voiced by individual doctors suspect it could be a non-infectious disease, for example, a Reye’s syndrome due to the recording of plant alkaloids (in litchi seeds etc. ).

Bihar not one of the classic risk areas for Japanese encephalitis. Should the suspected geäuftes Reye’s syndrome harden, so probably many children could by relatively simple measures, such as the administration of dextrose infusions be saved. (ProMED 4:08. ) Conclusion In addition to careful Mückenschtzmaßnahmen and the implementation of vaccination against Japanese encephalitis in plan to stay in rural areas of South Asia (esp. In proximity to paddy fields and pig farms) Other aspects should also like to guarantee the Standdardimpfschutzes (eg measles), careful hygiene (incl. Food and drinking water hygiene) and in doubt since the avoidance of eating more “exotic” dishes are respected. Provided by: Dr. H. Hunter Left