INTRODUCTION Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by Herpesvirus varicellae virus, which is equal to that of herpes zoster, and primarily affects the skin and mucosa of the mouth and throat. It is considered a childhood disease, because although babies are born with an immunity conferred by their mother, it disappears in the first year of life and the child can acquire the disease by direct infection. The disease has an incubation period of 14 to 16 days before symptoms appear, and both children and adults can spread the virus to each other; when the virus affects adults can cause hives. Outbreaks of chickenpox are strongest during the fall and winter, and it seems that occur in cycles of three to four years. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions or, most often through droplets of saliva of people affected, mostly in the period in which they have not yet manifested symptoms. The secretions of the skin lesions can spread the virus until completely dry. Moreover, indirect transmission through healthy carriers or objects is very rare. SYMPTOMS AND DEVELOPMENT The first symptoms are malaise, headache, slight rise in temperature, loss of appetite and sometimes a skin rash, reddish color, which disappears quickly. From 24 to 36 hours following the rash, which is usually mild in children appears, but appears much more intensity among adults. At first the spots appear in the mouth and throat, which quickly burst, causing pain and irritation: later spreads to the chest and face and sometimes the limbs. The spot begins as a point that ignites at the five or six hours, forming a vesicle filled with a clear liquid, which abounds viruses.
This stain is transformed to form a pustule, and finally a scab. The eruptions are developed over one or two days, in which the patient feels irritated and has high temperature up to 38 ° C. The intensity of the eruption varies, so while some children have very few spots, others may have a large number of them. Once formed scabs, lesions itchy welts that can last until the injury disappears after one to two weeks when the skin heals completely. Adults who get chickenpox, often have similar flu symptoms for a few days before the rash appears, and also that children take longer to recover. People suffering chickenpox should stay home. It is imperative that children keep bed, though some prefer. COMPLICATIONS Although there are very few risks associated with chickenpox cases occur in children who ingested steroid medications or suffer some other disease such as leukemia, which, if infected, may develop chickenpox extremely serious, which can be fatal . Another possible result, but very rare, is encephalitis or inflammation of the brain, which occurs when the virus affects the nervous system the virus affects the nervous system and can occur between the fourth and tenth day since the outbreak; this disease require hospitalization, as the utmost gravity. The most common complications derived from skin lesions, which can become infected and produce a yellowish pus; Also, injuries near the eyes can lead to an infectious conjunctivitis which is treated with antibiotics. Case apart are newborns whose mother suffers chickenpox few days after birth, and who are at high risk of contracting a severe form of the disease. Although chickenpox confers permanent immunity after having passed, some people, especially the elderly or debilitated, may suffer repeated attacks of herpes zoster virus reactivation.
TREATMENT There is no specific treatment against this virus, so it should be expected that the disease follows a normal course. Headaches or throat can be treated with analgesics, such as paracetamol, and itching caused by eruptions can be relieved by applying soothing calamine lotion, which has refreshing and softening properties. To reduce irritation antihistamines can also be applied, the doctor should advise, and fever, especially among adults, is lowered with aspirin or antipyretics. Children should not attend school for at least a week since the outbreak to relieve infections, although this measure should always be consulted with the doctor. After ten days or two weeks injuries have healed completely, even if they had been scratched or torn, the healing process may last longer. It should be noted that if injuries or infected scratch may leave scars. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vaccinating all children who have not given them the disease between 12 and 18 months of age. Older children should be immunized at the first opportunity with a single dose. The 13+ healthy children who have not given them the disease should be immunized with 2 doses in a range of 4 to 8 weeks NEXT HOME INDEX