INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by Herpesvirus varicellae virus, which is equal to that of herpes zoster, and primarily affects the skin and mucosa of the mouth and throat. It is considered a childhood disease, because although babies are born with an immunity conferred by their mother, it disappears in the first year of life and the child can acquire the disease by direct infection. The disease has an incubation period of 14 to 16 days before symptoms appear, and both children and adults can spread the virus to each other; when the virus affects adults can cause hives. Outbreaks of chickenpox are strongest during the fall and winter, and it seems that occur in cycles of three to four years. The virus is transmitted by direct contact with skin lesions or, most often through droplets of saliva of people affected, mostly in the period in which they have not yet manifested symptoms. The secretions of the skin lesions can spread the virus until completely dry. Moreover, indirect transmission through healthy carriers or objects is very rare. SYMPTOMS AND DEVELOPMENT The first symptoms are malaise, headache, slight rise in temperature, loss of appetite and sometimes a skin rash, reddish color, which disappears quickly. From 24 to 36 hours following the rash, which is usually mild in children appears, but appears much more intensity among adults. At first the spots appear in the mouth and throat, which quickly burst, causing pain and irritation: later spreads to the chest and face and sometimes the limbs. The spot begins as a point that ignites at the five or six hours, forming a vesicle filled with a clear liquid, which abounds viruses.

This stain is transformed to form a pustule, and finally a scab. The eruptions are developed over one or two days, in which the patient feels irritated and has high temperature up to 38 ° C. The intensity of the eruption varies, so while some children have very few spots, others may have a large number of them. Once formed scabs, lesions itchy welts that can last until the injury disappears after one to two weeks when the skin heals completely. Adults who get chickenpox, often have similar flu symptoms for a few days before the rash appears, and also that children take longer to recover. People suffering chickenpox should stay home. It is imperative that children keep bed, though some prefer. COMPLICATIONS Although there are very few risks associated with chickenpox cases occur in children who ingested steroid medications or suffer some other disease such as leukemia, which, if infected, may develop chickenpox extremely serious, which can be fatal . Another possible result, but very rare, is encephalitis or inflammation of the brain, which occurs when the virus affects the nervous system the virus affects the nervous system and can occur between the fourth and tenth day since the outbreak; this disease require hospitalization, as the utmost gravity. The most common complications derived from skin lesions, which can become infected and produce a yellowish pus; Also, injuries near the eyes can lead to an infectious conjunctivitis which is treated with antibiotics. Case apart are newborns whose mother suffers chickenpox few days after birth, and who are at high risk of contracting a severe form of the disease. Although chickenpox confers permanent immunity after having passed, some people, especially the elderly or debilitated, may suffer repeated attacks of herpes zoster virus reactivation.

TREATMENT There is no specific treatment against this virus, so it should be expected that the disease follows a normal course. Headaches or throat can be treated with analgesics, such as paracetamol, and itching caused by eruptions can be relieved by applying soothing calamine lotion, which has refreshing and softening properties. To reduce irritation antihistamines can also be applied, the doctor should advise, and fever, especially among adults, is lowered with aspirin or antipyretics. Children should not attend school for at least a week since the outbreak to relieve infections, although this measure should always be consulted with the doctor. After ten days or two weeks injuries have healed completely, even if they had been scratched or torn, the healing process may last longer. It should be noted that if injuries or infected scratch may leave scars. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vaccinating all children who have not given them the disease between 12 and 18 months of age. Older children should be immunized at the first opportunity with a single dose. The 13+ healthy children who have not given them the disease should be immunized with 2 doses in a range of 4 to 8 weeks NEXT HOME INDEX

Equine Herpes Virus (EHV)

In addition to reproductive disorders and respiratory disease equine herpesvirus (EHV) also cause occasional neurological diseases that can be fatal sometimes. In general, these disorders are caused by the subtype EHV. 1 Only in exceptional cases EHV 4 for the clinical picture of encephalomyelitis (Myeloencephalitis) is verantwortlich. 3 Sometimes mixed infections find both subtypes. EHV neurological disease may occur sporadically or epizootic. Stierstorfer et al. (2002) assume that these infection-related disorders in horses in Germany are more common than they werden. 7 documented Often, but not necessarily, occur neurological disorders only after respiratory symptoms or an abortion. The diagnosis is nevertheless provided primarily based on clinical symptoms and hardly on the basis of etiology. After Thein (2000) relates to the central nervous system form more frequently horses are unvaccinated. Herpesvirus-induced neurological disorders are also already occurred in vaccinated horses. Such Impfdurchbrüche are both in horses that have been immunized with live attenuated vaccine, as well as in animals, the vaccines based on inactivated EHV-1 or EHV-1 and EHV-4 had received observed worden.


13 The clinical symptoms of CNS form can vary greatly. Quite often occurs at the beginning of an acute, severe lameness, which can change in ataxia with paralysis and recumbency. In addition, a tail- and Blasenparalyse may occur. These symptoms we called “stroke”. It is true that even such a “stroke” again reach the restitutio ad integrum, but is also a deadly end or a killing of the animal for animal protection reasons not selten. 17 The pathogenesis of EHV-induced neurological disorders is not yet completely geklärt. 11 Yet infect horses usually during the first Lebensjahres11 via the respiratory tract both with EHV 1 and EHV 4. Upon the occurrence of herpes-related neurological disorder which usually means not a new infection, but reinfection with EHV 14 and to the reactivation of a latent or persistent Infektion10. Presumably, the virus enters the debate on the leukozytengebundene viremia in the endothelial cells of blood vessels that supply the central nervous system. This is where defects in the vessel walls and the adjoining tissue. Because immunological reactions then multiple inflammatory foci arise (Vaskulitissyndrom).

By inflammation of the vessel walls to form clots. This lead to a reduced or even ligated supply to the surrounding tissue. As a result of the shortage and the resultant deteriorated metabolism occur hypoxic degeneration. The vascular permeability is increased, and there is bleeding. These are often seen in the oral mucosa. Find bleeding in the nervous tissue of the spinal cord instead, there is a compression of the spinal cord and characterized initially ataxia and later paralysis (paraplegia or even paralysis) . 5 The treatment options for herpes-related neurological disorders are purely symptomatic nature. Depending on the condition of the animal is a parenteral rehydration and nutrition, the administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic and optionally angezeigt. 17 of DMSO or NSAID and acyclovir Also hard Lieger must be stored soft. In a paralysis of tail- and bladder emptying both the rectum and the bladder every 2-3 hours is notwendig. 17 As prophylaxis, the entire contents should werden5,17 regularly vaccinated against EHV 1 and EHV.

4 In addition, wear good hygiene and housing conditions and a systematic management helps to reduce the risk of infection in a herd and the risk of breaking clinical symptoms for the individual horse verringern. 5,17 particularly regular mass vaccination reduces virus shedding deutlich5.

Human pathogenic viruses

et al geliedert by ultrastructural features, with disease examples (selection) virus groups Examples disease Single-stranded RNA viruses without envelope membrane Picornaviridae: rhinoviruses sniff Hepatitis A virus hepatitis A enteroviruses: poliomyelitis poliomyelitis enteroviruses 68-71

enteritis Coxsackievirus enteritis ECHO viruses Enteritis, Mycarditis, Herpangina Caliciviridae: Norwalk virus enteritis epidemic Astroviridae: Astro viruses infantile gastroenteritis Single-stranded RNA viruses with envelope membrane Togaviridae

rubella Rubella, congenital rubella syndrome Flaviviridae Flaviviruses: inter alia TBE virus Tick-borne encephalitis Dengue Virus Degué fever Yellow fever virus yellow fever West Nile Virus WNV meningoencephalitis Hepatitis C Virus

hepatitis C Rhabdoviridae Rabiesvirus rabies Filoviridae Marburg virus Marburg disease Ebola virus Ebola Paramyxoviridae Parainfluenza Virus Flu, Krupp mumps virus

Mumps (Parotits, orchitis) measles virus measles Respirat. Syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia Orthomyxoviridae Influenza -A, -B, -C Influenza, influenza pneumonia, croup Bunyaviridae RVF virus Congo-Crimean CCHF virus

Hemorrhagic fever Arenaviridae LCM virus lymphocytic choriomeningitis Lassa virus Lassa fever Retroviridae Oncornaviren: HTLV-I, -II Adult T-Cell Leukemia-/ Lymphoma (ATL) Lentiviruses, HIV-I, -II Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Double-stranded RNA viruses without envelope membrane Reoviridae

reovirus infantile enteritis? rotavirus infantile enteritis Coltiviren: CTF virus Colorado Tick Fever Double-stranded DNA viruses without envelope membrane Papoviridae polyomavirus: JC virus progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy BK virus

papillomaviruses: type 1 verruca palmoplantaris Types 2, 4 verruca vulgaris type 3 verruca plana Types 5, 12, 17 epidermodysplasia verruciformis Types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 Condylomata acuminata / plana, genital carcinomas Adenoviridae adenovirus

Airway inflammation, tumors Single-stranded DNA viruses without envelope membrane Parvoviridae parvovirus B19 Fifth disease, abortion, fetal hydrops Double-stranded DNA viruses with envelope membrane Herpesviridae Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1, HHV-1) herpes labialis Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2, HHV-2) genital herpes

Varicella zoster virus (VZV, HHV-3) Chickenpox, herpes zoster Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, HHV-4) Infectious mononucleosis, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (Burkitt’s lymphoma, among others), post-transplant lymphoproliferation (PTLD) Cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5) CMV pneumonia, -Sialoadenitis, colitis among others Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) Exanthema subitum Human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7) Infectious mononucleosis-like illness Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8)

Kaposi’s sarcoma, certain lymphomas Poxviridae poxvirus smallpox Molluscum contagiosum virus molluscum contagiosum Hepadnaviridae Hepatitis B virus (HBV) hepatitis B Not classified viruses Hepatitis D virus (HDV) hepatitis D Share this:

Proper care for cold sores

Cold sore is one of the most common skin diseases. About half of the population has at some point to fight with small blisters on the lip. To this rash to be quickly release there are various ways to maintain the lips with herpes. Table of Contents Cold sores When cold sores is a viral infection. This is caused by so-called herpes simplex virus. The virus remains after the first infection, which usually occurs in childhood, without further outbreak a lifetime in the body. Particularly common is a weakened immune system, the reason for the formation of bubbles. Also emotional stress, a cold, strong sunlight or a strong feeling of disgust may favor the cold sore. A few days before the outbreak in early symptoms show how a feeling of tension or tingling on the skin. An outbreak of this skin disease manifests itself in painful and itchy blisters on the lips and mouth. In extreme cases, the bubbles are spreading to the nose and cheeks.

It takes some time until the cold sore heal and form crusts. In order to prevent the spread and the effects of bubbles and to accelerate the healing process, the lips must be especially maintained. Lip balm for herpes When cold sores there are a variety of ointments, tablets and creams, which are intended to combat the cold sores. These agents are available and usually without prescription at the pharmacy. The drugs can not destroy, but to set it again only in the idle state the virus. The ointments often contain the active ingredient aciclovir, which prevents the proliferation of the virus and thus a further propagation of the blisters. The treatment with the herpes ointment should be done as early as possible in order to achieve a good effect. home remedies If you want to take medicine, can also be found in the budget some funds to fight the bubbles. The most common home remedy is honey. This is not only used for lip care, but also for cold sores. He has an antibacterial effect and promotes healing of cold sores.

The honey should be spotted four times a day to the affected area. The same effect is achieved by means of lemon balm oil. Tea tree oil is mainly used at the first signs of herpes. Through the antibacterial action, an outbreak can be prevented. For this, some tea tree oil is added to a cream and dabbed on the exciting and tingling body. Then you should make It should be taken to keep the cold sore dry and apply cream with conventional creams. If the blisters hurt, leak fluid, which may be given by skin contact to other people. At this stage of the herpes should not possible touch with the fingers the bubbles. In no case, the bubbles may be expressed. To apply ointments and other means, a cotton swab should always be used.