IntraMed – Articles – Treatment with valacyclovir to reduce recurrent genital herpes

It is one of the diseases most common sexually transmitted diseases and is characterized by a latent and recurrent mucocutaneous infection. A major concern regarding maternal infection with HSV during pregnancy is the potential for vertical transmission to the fetus and / or newborn. To reduce vertical transmission, current management guidelines recommend cesarean delivery for women with active HSV lesions perineal or prodromal symptoms at delivery. Several investigations explored the potential use of antiviral acyclovir treatment late in the third trimester of pregnancy to prevent recurrences of HSV at delivery. The results of these investigations suggest that acyclovir, started at 36 weeks gestation, can reduce clinical recurrences and may reduce the need for caesarean sections as a result of active HSV lesions become evident. Valacyclovir is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and converted to acyclovir in the hepatic first pass. Bioavailability of this transformation is 3 to 5 times higher than after oral administration of acyclovir, allowing a lower dose interval. Thanks to these favorable attributes, suppressive treatment with valaciclovir in late pregnancy could significantly reduce both the frequency of clinical relapses, as viral lesions at delivery, thereby reducing the need for caesarean sections and the risk of vertical transmission. Currently, however, no published data indicates safety or clinical efficacy of valaciclovir in pregnant women or their babies. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of valaciclovir suppressive therapy initiated 36 weeks of gestation to reduce recurrent genital herpes and to assess preliminarily security in the mother and her child. The medication was suspended after birth, and postpartum mothers received routine care. One of the results was observed that the number of women with clinical recurrences of HSV between the time they started the suppressive treatment and delivery was significantly lower in the group treated with valacyclovir versus placebo. Something important in this study is that there were no significant differences between the valacyclovir and placebo, in mothers and infants, among the variables evaluated to measure the safety of the use of valaciclovir during pregnancy.

Especially, no significant differences between the groups in perinatal outcomes were observed, including birth weight, frequency of hospitalizations in the neonatal intensive care and Apgar score at 5 minutes less than 7. There were also no significant differences regarding the frequency of oligohydramnios, maternal or neonatal renal function. In conclusion we can summarize that the treatment suppressive daily valacyclovir initiated 36 weeks of pregnancy and continuing until delivery in women with documented history of infection recurrent HSV, significantly reduces the number of women with subsequent clinical recurrences of HSV after the start treatment. However, the suppression did not decrease the number of women with viral lesions close to delivery, active HSV lesions at the time of delivery, or the number requiring cesarean active HSV lesions. Although not statistically significant, both the percentage of women with active HSV lesions, as the percentage of women requiring cesarean active lesions was lower in the group treated with valacyclovir group compared to the placebo group. The onset of spontaneous labor is unpredictable, so is also the onset and duration of active genital HSV recurrent. Thus, we believe that an important observation in this study was noted when the entire time between the start of suppressive treatment to 36 weeks to the time of delivery was considered. During this period of approximately 3 weeks, we observed a statistically significant decrease in recurrent HSV lesions active genital among women treated with valaciclovir compared to those treated with placebo. Thus, in the general population of pregnant women with a history of infections recurrent genital HSV, it is reasonable to anticipate that such a reduction in clinical relapses between weeks 36 and childbirth in women receiving suppression with valaciclovir antiviral, could eventually lead a reduction of caesarean sections performed especially for the indication of active HSV lesions at delivery. In future studies, quantitative PCR rather than qualitative detection of the herpes simplex virus, could be useful in determining whether the antiviral suppressive therapy in late pregnancy reduces the viral inoculum that predisposes vertical transmission. Previous studies have investigated the use of suppressive therapy with acyclovir for pregnant women at risk of recurrent HSV infection. The results of our research with valaciclovir are similar to these previous reports where using acyclovir. In addition, physicians who chose to use the antiviral for HSV suppression in late pregnancy, may be encouraged by the improved bioavailability and lower daily dose of valacyclovir compared with acyclovir.

Although valaciclovir is more expensive than acyclovir, a recent cost-effectiveness analysis, it was shown that the suppressive treatment with valaciclovir was economically favorable compared with acyclovir, or no treatment. Another important contribution of this study is to secure information related to the use of valaciclovir in pregnant women. No safety problems in mothers, fetuses or neonates exposed to valacyclovir were identified. Since valacyclovir becomes acyclovir after the first liver passage, the safety profile could also be applied to acyclovir. Some authors might argue that greater experience objectively examined with the use of valaciclovir and / or acyclovir in pregnant before can be established with certainty, the safety of these medications is needed. Despite sharing this position, we are proud of the favorable toxicity profile observed is this study. In addition, no significant adverse effects were reported in previous studies on prophylaxis with acyclovir in late pregnancy. However, in the absence of definitive data regarding safety, universal use of valaciclovir for viral suppression in all women with a history of genital HSV infection, it may not be prudent. Highlights: What question does this work? It shows the experience of the use of valaciclovir to 36 weeks of gestation in women with a history of recurrent genital herpes, reducing the number of subsequent clinical lesions. What adds to what was already known about it? Quantitative PCR rather than qualitative detection of the herpes simplex virus, could be useful in determining whether the antiviral suppressive therapy in late pregnancy reduces the viral inoculum that predisposes vertical transmission.

Further studies to ensure the safety of such treatment are awaited. How does my daily practice? With the introduction of this treatment the number of caesarean sections for active genital herpes lesions, vertical transmission and the number of clinical recurrences of the disease would be reduced.

la varicelle – German translation – Linguee Dictionary

Ne prenez pas si vous avez une Anacin allergy à un de ingrédient [. . . ] Anancin; si vous êtes enfant [. . . ] Ou un adolescent avec la grippe ou la varicelle, si vous avez the problèmes de saignement [. . . ]

comme l’hémophilie, [. . . ] sang maladie de von Willebrand, les plaquettes dans le ou saignement grave, si vous avez une grave réaction allergique comme de pointe de l’urticaire, of difficultés respiratoires, the vertiges à l’aspirine, la tartrazine ou non-stéroïdien anti- inflammatoire non stéroïdien (AINS) means que le naproxène, l’ibuprofen celecoxib, si vous prenez of anticoagulants ou le Methotrexate. bepharmacy. com Do not take Anacin if you have allergy [. . . ]

to any ingredient [. . . ] Of Anancin have; if you are child or teenager with flu or chickenpox; If you [. . . ] bleeding problems such as [. . . ]

have hemophilia, von Willebrand disease of, low blood platelets, or active severe bleeding; if you have a severe allergic reaction such as rush, hives, breathing difficulties, dizziness to aspirin, Tartrazine or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as naproxen, ibuprofen celecoxib, if you take anticoagulants or methotrexate. bepharmacy. com Avant d’utiliser Purinethol, consultez votre médecin si vous êtes enceinte, Envisagez de le devenir, ou au allaitez be, si vous avez of allergies aux aliments, aux médicaments, à d’autres substances; si vous des médicaments prenez prescrits sur ordonnance ou en vente libre des produits à base de plantes, ou the suppléments diététiques, si [. . . ] vous avez the problèmes hépatiques ou Renaux ou la goutte, une [. . . ] Infection (y compris la varicelle), the antecedents [.

. . ] d’infections fréquentes ou prolongées, ou si vous avez eu une vaccination [. . . ] récente, si vous avez certaines insuffisances enzymatiques, une transfusion de sang, si vous avez the Antecedents de problèmes de moelle osseuse, l’anémie, un faible taux de globules blancs ou de plaquettes, ou ou of ecchymoses saignements inhabituels; si vous prenez un médicament anti-rhumatisme modificateur de la maladie. onlineapotek-24. com Before using Purinethol discuss, tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding; if you have allergy to food, medicines and other substances, if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement; if you suffer from liver or [.

. . ] Kidney problems or suffer from gout, infection (including chickenpox), or frequent or longer [. . . ] Have persistent infections in the history or in [. . . ] the last time a [.

. . ] got vaccination if you have certain enzyme deficiencies, perform blood transfusions if you have bone problems, anemia, decrease in the concentration of white blood cells or platelets, or unusual bruising or bleeding in the anamnesis; if you are taking a disease modifying antirheumatic drugs. onlineapotek-24. com Les maladies infantiles les plus courantes sont dans trois groupes représentées clairement delimités: le groupe “Fièvre et eruptions cutanées» contient of [. . . ] informations sur les maladies comme [.

. . ] La rougeole et la varicelle; à la rubrique “Maux [. . . ] de ventre, diarrhée, vomissements ” [. . . ] on en apprend plus au sujet de la colique of nourrissons ou de la gastroesophageal entérite et, dans le grand groupe «Refroidissement, maux de gorge / maux d’oreilles, toux” on trouve ce qu’il est bon de savoir au sujet de la bronchite, de la coqueluche et d’autres maladies. sympany.

ch The most common childhood illnesses are presented in three clear groups: The group fever and rash ” [. . . ] contains information about [. . . ] Diseases such as measles and chicken pox, among bellyache, [. . .

] Diarrhea, vomiting, “you can learn more [. . . ] about infant colic or diarrhea and vomiting, and in the large group colds, ear / earache, cough “to find out more about bronchitis, whooping cough and other diseases. sympany. ch Aciclovir est utilisé pour traiter of infections viral comme l’herpès labial, pour la arrêter [. . .

] croissance du virus de l’herpès [. . . ] Simplex, le virus varicelle-zona (causées par la varicelle et du zona), virus d’Epstein Barr (causes par [. . . ] la fièvre glandulaire) [. . .

] et dans une mesure à moindre cytomegalovirus (CMV). stragh. ru Acyclovir is used to treat viral infections such as cold sores, the growth of the herpes simplex virus, [. . . ] Varicella zoster virus [. . .

] (Caused by chickenpox and shingles), Epstein Barr virus (caused by glandular fever), [. . . ] and to a lesser extent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) quit. stragh. ru Le taux de mortalité infantile y est bas et on est parvenu à éradiquer de nombreuses maladies auxquelles [. . . ] doivent toujours faire face un grand nombre de pays de par le monde, telles

[. . . ] Que le choléra, la varicelle et la malaria. europarl. europa. eu The infant mortality rate is low and many of the diseases, which in [. . . ] much of the world is still fighting, are in Taiwan as defeated, for

[. . . ] For cholera, chickenpox and malaria. europarl. europa. eu Pour les adolescents qui, au terme de leur arrivés scolarité obligatoire n’ont, [. . . ] Pas encore eu la varicelle, un vaccin est [. .

. ] recommandé. sympany. ch youth [. . . ] Until the end of the school-aged no [. . . ]

had chickenpox infection, vaccination is recommended. sympany. ch Cela les sortes d’effet secondaire peut faire du mal aux globules rouges: la fièvre, le fait de faire facilement of bleus facile ou le saignement; les [. . . ] taches rouges sur la peau (non Rattaché à [. . . ] L’herpès ou à la varicelle); diarrhée ensanglantée, [.

. . ] en vomissant; peau pâle ou yellowed; [. . . ] faiblesse ou évanouissement; en moins urinant qu’ordinaire ou pas du tout. stragh. ru This kinds of side effect can harm red blood cells: fever, easy bruising or bleeding; Red [.

. . ] Points on the skin (not connected to the [. . . ] Herpes or chickenpox); Bloody diarrhea, [. . . ] emesis; pale or yellowed skin; weakness [.

. . ] or fainting; less than usual or does not urinating. stragh. ru La varicelle et la rougeole risquent de survenir plus [. . . ] tôt en raison de la perte plus précoce of anticorps maternels. neonet. ch

Because of the premature disappearance of maternal antibodies [. . . ] can measles and varicella occur earlier. neonet. ch Noton l’apparition de nouvelles maladies telles que la varicelle ont été enregistré (Confere tableau récapitulatif the affections, [. . . ] en annexe). fr.

sahel. org We have emerging diseases, such as chickenpox, notices (see summary table of the infection in the appendix) sahel. de Vaccin vivant Stabilise comprenant un composant de virus composé d’au [. . . ] moins un virus de [. .

. ] Varicelle sélectionné dans le groupe consistant en virus vivant atténué de la varicelle et virus recombinant atténué de la varicelle, et un stabilisant comprenant une quantité efficace d’au moins un produit [. . . ] de gélatine sélectionné [. . . ] dans le groupe consistant en gélatine et un dérivé de gélatine et où ledit vaccin est sensiblement exempt d’ions Ca2 + et d’ions Mg2 + au point que les ions Ca2 + et les ions Mg2 + ne soient sensiblement pas détectés par une méthode de titration colorimétrique utilisant un réactif chélateur. v3. espacenet.

com The stabilized live vaccine comprising a virus component comprising at least one [. . . ] Varicella virus [. . . ] Comprising, selected from the group of a live attenuated varicella virus and an attenuated recombinant varicella virus and a stabilizer an effective [. . .

] Amount of at least one [. . . ] Gelatin product comprises selected from the group consisting of gelatin and a gelatin derivative, wherein the vaccine is substantially free of Ca 2+ ions and Mg 2+ ions, so that Ca 2+ ions and Mg 2+ ions by colorimetric titration using a chelating agent are not substantially detected. v3. espacenet. com Famvir est pour administré traiter of infections provoquées par le simplex d’herpes (tape I et II): l’aggravation infection primitive, l’ [. .

. ] de l’infection chronique, la prévention, [. . . ] Les galets ou la varicelle (Varicella zoster), [. . . ] postherpetic la névralgie, l’herpès génital périodique. stragh. ru

Famvir is used to treat herpes simplex (types I and II) infections: primal infection, aggravation [. . . ] the chronic infection, prevention, [. . . ] Shingles or chickenpox (Varicella zoster), [. . . ]

Postherpetic neuralgia and recurrent genital herpes. stragh. ru Procédé de préparation d’un vaccin [. . . ] Contenant un virus de la varicelle vivant atténué, selon lequel: (i) on cultive le virus de la varicelle vivant atténué [. . . ] ; (Ii) on ajouté à la préparation obtenue s (i), un [.

. . ] agent stabilisant pour stabilizer le virus, qui comprend: un ou plusieurs acidic (s) aminé (s), you sucrose, un ou plusieurs polyalcool (s), une solution tampon, et de l’Urée ou un dérivé de l’Urée; (Iii) on récolte le virus; et (iv) on lyophilisé la préparation obtenue en (iii). v3. espacenet. com A process for the preparation of a [. . . ] Vaccine containing a

[. . . ] Attenuated live varicella virus, ACCORDING \x26amp; szlig; the: (i) culturing the attenuated live varicella virus; (Ii) [. . . ] , in order to stabilize the virus, obtained in (i) Preparation a [. . . ] Stabilizer is added, comprising: one or more amino acid (s), sucrose, one or more polyalcohol (s), a buffer solution and urea or a urea derivative; (Iii) to harvest the virus and (iv) to the lyophilized preparation obtained in (iii).

v3. espacenet. com Vous devriez commencer à prendre [. . . ] Acyclovir aux premiers stades de [. . . ] L’infection de l’herpès ou la varicelle, Zovirax fonctionne [.

. . ] le mieux à ce moment-là, il réduit les [. . . ] démangeaisons, the douleurs et des plaies. acyclovir. org. uk You should

[. . . ] Acyclovir, in the early stages of infection of herpes [. . . ] taking start, or chicken pox, Zovirax function [. . . ] good itching at this time, it decrease pain and hurt.

acyclovir. org. uk Après que [. . . ] Le rétablissement de la varicelle de poulet le virus puisse [. . . ] demeurer dans le système et devenir actif plus tard [.

. . ] dans la vie d’adult comme Bardeaux. online-vitamins-guide. com After recovery from chicken pox the virus within [. . . ] be active later and the system can remain in adult life as shingles. online-vitamins-guide. com

La cause de la varicelle de poulet est le virus de zoster [. . . ] de varicella et une attaque d’enfance Confere immunité perpétuelle [. . . ] pendant que la plupart des enfants sont exposés à un certain moment. online-vitamins-guide. com The cause of chicken pox is the Varicella zoster virus [.

. . ] and a childhood attack confers lifelong immunity, [. . . ] while most children are exposed at some point. online-vitamins-guide. com 2) Bactéries en Protagonistes blessants ne sont pas panique corn Peurs ANTHRAX OF ETABLES AUX ETOILES mais les Américains ont l’antibiotique la chypre – Bioterrorismo / Blue boy a la varicelle / non il est charbon / photo: un talebano – Anthrax au microscope / Charbon , sur la peau image rapprochée – Pierre file errante l’objectif / photo mouvement image / Photo se déclenchée par les enfants Afghani pendant une Treve pour Aides humanitaires – De David USA à l’Ahmed salut! inkpaper.

it 2) bacteria in insulting main characters, it is not panic but fear ANTHRAX FROM Stallen A. THE STARS but the Americans have the antibiotic Cyprus – Bioterrorismo / Blue boy has the chickenpox / no, it is carbuncle / photo: a talebano – anthrax for microscope / carbuncle, the skin nahert image – stone wandering row the target / photo bewegtbild / of the Afghan children quick photo during a ceasefire for humanitarian aid – From David USA in Afghan Ahmed hello! inkpaper. it Toute personne ayant eu la varicelle risque de développer un zona et l’estime qu’il on affectera [. . . ] environ une personne sur [. . .

] cinq à un moment ou à un autre de leur vie. avanex. ch Around one fifth of former chickenpox sufferers get later in life shingles. avanex. ch Bien que vous puissiez récupérer complètement de la varicelle, le virus de l’herpès zoster reste dans les cellules endormit nerveuses et peut redevenir actif plus tard au cours [. . . ] de votre vie. fr.

healthexpress. eu While you may be completely healed from chickenpox, the virus remains in a dormant state in the nerve cells and can become active again later in life. healthexpress. de Malheureusement, il n’y a rien que le Groupe Mutuel [. . . ] Puisse faire contre la varicelle du petit Alexandre. naturaassurances. ch Against Max’s chicken pox, the Groupe Mutuel unfortunately [.

. . ] do nothing. naturaassurances. ch Éviter tout contact avec des personnes qui ont récemment reçu le vaccin antipoliomyélitique [. . . ] oral ou vaccin contre la [.

. . ] Flu inhales par le nez, la varicelle ou la rougeole, sauf si vous avez [. . . ] déjà eu ces maladies (dans l’enfance). bepharmacy. com Avoid contact with people who have a recently [. . .

] Oral polio vaccine or [. . . ] Had inhaled through the nasal flu vaccine, chicken pox or measles, [. . . ] unless this [. . .

] Diseases (in childhood) already had. bepharmacy. com Zovirax est utile pour réduire le nombre de Lésions de la varicelle et si le traitement est au commencé be de 24 premières heures, il à contribue accélérer le processus, le nettoyage et la guérison de la varicelle. acyclovir. org. uk Zovirax is [. . . ] Useful when the number chicken pox and injuries reduced if treatment is started within the first 24 hours, it helps if you speed up the process, the cleaning and the healing of chicken pox.

acyclovir. org. uk Cependant, si vous [. . . ] N’avez pas eu la varicelle quand vous étiez enfant, vous pouvez potential ment attraper la varicelle en entrant en [. . . ] contact avec une personne [.

. . ] ayant les actifs du symptômes zona. fr. healthexpress. eu However, if you as a child had chickenpox, [. . . ] You can potentially fall ill with chicken pox when you come in contact with a person who is active shingles symptoms [. .

. ] having. healthexpress. de Après la naissance, les Traumatismes crâniens ou [. . . ] infections durant l’enfance, telles que [. .

. ] La meningite, la rougeole, la varicelle peuvent entraîner [. . . ] une perte d’acuité auditory permanent. french. hear-it. org After birth, head injuries may or [. . .

] Childhood diseases such as meningitis, measles or chickenpox permanent [. . . ] cause deafness. german. hear-it. org L’usage du [. . . ] Henné en tant que médicament contre la Lepre et d’autres maladies de la peau, ainsi que la variole, la varicelle, the absces ou of tumeurs date de l’Antique et nous est transmis par les médecins arabes.

henna-und-mehr. de The use of henna as a remedy for leprosy and other skin diseases as well as smallpox, chickenpox, abscesses and tumors reaches far into antiquity and is handed down to us by Arab doctors. henna-und-mehr. de Une opacité congenital du cristallin: Elle se manifeste dans le cadre de certaines maladies héréditaires ou suite à une malformation embryonnaire de l’oeil, par exemple si une femme pas immunisée a fait une rubéole [. . . ] en début de grossesse [. .

. ] Ou d’autres maladies infectieuses comme les oreillons, la rougeole, la toxoplasmosis ou la varicelle. css. ch Congenital cataract: It occurs in the context of some hereditary diseases or is a result of an embryonic malformation of the child’s eye, for example, if the expectant mother in the [. . . ] Early pregnancy for the first time [. . .

] German measles or other infectious diseases such as mumps, measles, chickenpox or toxoplasmosis ill. css. ch Informez votre médecin ou professionnel de la [. . . ] santé si vous [. . . ] Côtoyez quelqu’un qui a la rougeole ou la varicelle ou si vous avez the plaies ou of [.

. . ] ampoules qui ne pas bien guérissent. pillsbuy. org Tell your doctor if you are around anyone with [. . . ] Were having measles or chickenpox, or if you have blisters that do not heal. pillsbuy. org

Une fois la maladie surmontée, on est immunisé à vie contre la varicelle, mais pas contre le zona. css. ch After by-made disease is a lifelong immunity against varicella, but not shingles. css. ch En l’absence de vaccination, respectively. de taux d’anticorps suffisant, la vaccination contre la est indiquée [. . . ] diphtérie, le Tetanos, la poliomyélite, les oreillons,

[. . . ] La rougeole et la varicelle en cas de contact [. . . ] professionnel potentiel. re. srb-group. com respectively In the absence of vaccination. in the absence of or insufficient detection of antibodies are against vaccinations

[. . . ] Diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, recommended [. . . ] mumps, measles and varicella, [. . . ] unless appropriate workplace exposures are possible.

re. srb-group. com La varicelle et l’herpès zoster sont diagnostiqués par des signes cliniques [. . . ] typiques. medac. de The diagnosis of varicella and herpes zoster usually by [. . .

] the typical clinical picture. medac. de Si vous êtes exposé à quelqu’un qui a la rougeole ou la varicelle ou si vous avez the plaies ou qui ne of ampoules guérissent pas bien, parlez-en à votre médecin. pillsbuy. org Tell your doctor [. . . ] With, if the symptoms within a week will be better; They also share if you have come into contact with measles or chickenpox, or if you blisters or open [. .

. ] have places that do not heal. pillsbuy. org


Books (1): • Noppeney U: Abstract attitude: Kurt Goldstein at the interface between neurology, psychology and philosophy, 250, Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg, Germany, (2000). ISBN: 3-8260-1775-7, Series: Epistemata Wurzburg Scientific writings Article (69): • Raw T and U Noppeney (February 2016) Distinct Computational Principles Govern Multisensory Integration in Primary Sensory and Association cortices Current Biology 26 (4) 509-514. • Gau R and U Noppeney (January 2016) How prior expectations shape multisensory perception Neuro Image 124 (Part A) 876-886. • Tuennerhoff J and Noppeney U (January 2016) When sentences live up to your expectations Neuro Image 124 (Part A) 641-653. • Giani AS, Belardinelli P, Ortiz E, Little M and Noppeney U (November 2015) Detecting tones in complex auditory scenes NeuroImage 122203-213.

• Leitão J, Thielscher A, J and Tünnerhoff Noppeney U (August 2015) Concurrent TMS-fMRI Reveals Interactions between dorsal and ventral attentional system Journal of Neuroscience 35 (32) 11445-11457. • Raw T and U Noppeney (April 2015) Sensory reliability shapes perceptual inference via two mechanisms Journal of Vision 15 (5) 1-16. • Aller M, Giani A, Conrad V, Watanabe M and Noppeney U (February 2015) A Spatially collocated sound thrusts a flash into awareness Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 9 (16) 1-8. • Raw T and U Noppeney (February 2015) Cortical Hierarchies Perform Bayesian Causal Inference in Multisensory Perception PLoS Biology 13 (2) 1-18. • Adam R and U Noppeney (September 2014) A phonologically congruent sound boosts a visual target into perceptual awareness Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 8 (70) 1-13. • Leo F and Noppeney U (September 2014) Conditioned Sounds Enhance Visual Processing PLoS ONE 9 (9) 1-7. •

Lee H and Noppeney U (August 2014) Music expertise shapes audiovisual temporal integration windows for speech, sinewave speech, and music Frontiers in Psychology 5 (868) 1-9. • Lee H and Noppeney U (April 2014) Temporal prediction errors in visual and auditory cortices Current Biology 24 (8) R309-R310. • Conrad V, Little M, Bartels A, Hartcher O’Brien J, Bülthoff HH and Noppeney U (August 2013) Naturalistic stimulus Structure Deter Mines the integration of Audio Visual Looming signal in Binocular Rivalry PLoS ONE 8 (8) 1-8. • of Saldern S and U Noppeney (May 2013) Sensory and Striatal Areas Integrate Auditory and Visual signal into Behavioral Benefits during Motion Discrimination Journal of Neuroscience 33 (20) 8841-8849. • Leitão J, Thielscher A, Werner S, R and Pohmann Noppeney U (April 2013) Effects of parietal TMS on Visual and Auditory Processing at the Primary Cortical Level: A Concurrent TMS-fMRI Study Cerebral Cortex 23 (4) 873-884. • Conrad V, Vitello MP and Noppeney U (August 2012) Interactions Between Apparent Motion Rivalry in vision and touch Psychological Science 23 (8) 940-948. • Giani AS, EB Ortiz, Belardinelli P, Little M, H and Preissl Noppeney U (April 2012), steady-state responses in MEG demonstrate information integration within but not across the auditory and visual senses NeuroImage 60 (2) 1478-1489.

• Helbig HB, Ernst MO, Ricciardi E, Pietrini P, Thielscher A, Mayer KM, Schultz J and Noppeney U (April 2012) The neural mechanisms of reliability weighted integration of shape information from vision and touch NeuroImage 60 (2) 1063-1072 , • Lee HL and Noppeney U (December 2011) Long-term music workout tunes how the brain tempo rally binds signals from multiple senses Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America of the United States of America 108 (51) E1441-E1450. • Meyer GF and Noppeney U (September 2011) Multisensory integration: From fundamental principles to translational research Experimental Brain Research 213 (2-3) 163-166. • Lee HL and Noppeney U (August 2011) Physical and Perceptual Factors Shape the Neural Mechanisms That Integrate Audio Visual signal in Speech Comprehension Journal of Neuroscience 31 (31) 11338-11350. • Werner S and U Noppeney (April 2011) The Contributions of Transient and Sustained Response Codes to Audio Visual Integration Cerebral Cortex 21 (4) 920-931. • Maier JX, Di Luca M and Noppeney U (February 2011) Audio Visual asynchrony detection in human speech Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 37 (1) 245-256. •

Adam R and U Noppeney (October 2010) Prior auditory information shapes visual category-selectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex NeuroImage 52 (4) 1592-1602. • Conrad V, Bartels A, Little M and Noppeney U (August 2010) Audio Visual interactions in binocular rivalry Journal of Vision 10 (10:27) 1-15. • Werner S and U Noppeney (August 2010) Super additives Responses in Superior Temporal Sulcus Predict Audio Visual Benefits in Object Categorization Cerebral Cortex 20 (8) 1829-1842. • Noppeney U, D Ostwald and Werner S (May 2010) Perceptual Decisions Formed by Accumulation of Audio Visual Evidence in prefrontal cortex Journal of Neuroscience 30 (21) 7434-7446. • Werner S and U Noppeney (February 2010) Distinct Functional Contributions of Primary Sensory and Association Areas to Audio Visual Integration Object Categorization Journal of Neuroscience 30 (7) 2662-2675. • Noppeney U (October 2009) The sensory-motor theory of semantics: Evidence from functional imaging Language and Cognition 1 (2) 249-276. • Sadaghiani S, Maier JX and Noppeney U (May 2009) Natural, Metaphoric, and Linguistic Auditory Direction signal Have Distinct Influences on Visual Motion Processing Journal of Neuroscience 29 (20) 6490-6499.

• Sarkheil P, Vuong QC, Bülthoff HH and Noppeney U (October 2008) The integration of higher order form and motion by the human brain Neuro Image 42 (4) 1529-1536. • Salek-Haddadi A, Mayer T, Hamandi K, Symms M, Joseph O, Fluegel D, Woermann F, Richardson MP, Noppeney U, Wolf P and Koepp MJ (August 2008) Imaging seizure activity: A combined EEG / EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy Epilepsia 50 (2) 256-264. • Wright ND, Mechelli A, Noppeney U, Veltman DJ, Rombouts SARB, Glensman J, Haynes J-D and Price CJ (August 2008) Selective activation around the left occipito-temporal sulcus for words relative to pictures: individual variability or false positive? Human Brain Mapping 29 (8) 986-1000. • Noppeney U (May 2008) The neural system of tool and action semantics: A perspective from functional imaging Journal of Physiology – Paris 102 (1-3) 40-49. • Noppeney U, O Joseph, Hocking J, Price CJ and Friston KJ (March 2008) The effect of prior visual information on recognition of speech sounds and Cerebral Cortex 18 (3) 598-609. • Noppeney U (May 2007) The effects of visual deprivation on functional and structural organization of the human brain Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 31 (8) 1169-1180.

• Noppeney U, Patterson K, Tyler LK, Moss H, Stamatakis EA Bright P, Mummery C and Price CJ (January 2007) Temporal lobe lesions and semantic impairment: A comparison of herpes simplex virus encephalitis and Semantic Dementia Brain 130 (4) 1138-1147. • Crinion J, Turner R, Grogan A, Hanakawa T, Noppeney U, Devlin J, Aso T, Urayama S, Fukuyama H, Stockton K, Usui K, Green DW and Price CJ (June 2006) Language control in the bilingual brain science 312 (5779) 1537-1540. • Powell HW, Parker GJ, Alexander D, Symms MR, Boulby PA, Wheeler Kingshott CA, Noppeney U, Barker GJ, Koepp MJ and Duncan JS (May 2006) Hemispheric Asymmetries in language-related pathways: A combined functional MRI and tractography study NeuroImage 32 (1) 388-399. • Noppeney U, Penny WD, Price CJ, Flandin G and Friston KJ (April 2006) Identification of degenerate neuronal systems based on inter-subject variability NeuroImage 30 (3) 885-890. • Noppeney U and Penny WD (March 2006): Two approaches to repetition suppression Human Brain Mapping 27 (5) 411-416. • Price CJ, McCrory E, U Noppeney, Mechelli A, Moore CJ, Biggio N and Devlin JT (January 2006) How reading Differs from object naming at the neuronal level NeuroImage 29 (2) 643-648. •

Noppeney U, Joseph O, S Kiebel, Friston KJ and Price CJ (October 2005) Action selectivity in parietal and temporal cortex Cognitive Brain Research 25 (3) 641-649. • Noppeney U, Friston KJ, Ashburner J, Frackowiak R and Price CJ (July 2005) Early visual deprivation induces structural plasticity in gray and white matter Current Biology 15 (13) R488-R490. • Noppeney U, Price CJ, Duncan JS and Koepp MJ (June 2005) Reading skills after left anterior temporal lobe resection: to fMRIstudy. Brain 128 (6) 1377-1385. • Noppeney U, Price CJ, Penny WD and Friston KJ (June 2005) Two Distinct Neural Mechanisms for Category-selective responses Cerebral Cortex 16 (3) 437-445. • Noppeney U, Friston KJ and Price CJ (December-2004) Degenerate neuronal systems sustaining cognitive functions Journal of Anatomy 205 (6) 433-442. • Noppeney U (October 2004) comments on B. Röder and F.

Rösler: Compensatory plasticity in blind people Journal of Neuropsychology 15 (4) 272-273. • Mechelli A, Crinion JT, Noppeney U, Ashburner J, Frackowiak RS and Price CJ (October 2004) Neurolinguistics: structural plasticity in the bilingual brain. Nature 431 (7010) 757-757.

Berufsgenossenschaftliches Universitätsklinikum Bergmannsheil – Patient Info neuralgia

neuralgia Neuralgia (technical term: Neuropathic pain) can at Erkran-diseases or injuries of the nerve fibers of the spinal cord or the brain occur. Causes are various diseases. These include, for example, the polyneuropathy, a disease of the large or small nerves in the skin, deep tissues or internal organs the herpes zoster neuralgia (belt or erysipelas) a nerve root irritation, sores (radiculopathy) Spinal cord diseases (for example, at a narrowing (spinal stenosis), or a spinal cord injury) Brain injuries or diseases (eg. As after a stroke) or various neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease u. a. m.

What is special about nerve pain? Usually pain is the response to tissue inflammation or injury or circulatory disorder. The stronger it is, the stronger pain. These include, for example, pain associated with osteoarthritis, after an injury or surgery or in the arterial circulatory disorder (smoker’s leg). The pain produced in the tissue in the nerve endings, directly from the nerve fibers into the spinal cord where it is processed and in the brain. This is the normal reaction of any organism to a threat to the body. Pain here has a warning function. When nerve pain, the situation is different: Here the pain resulting from the disease of the nervous system itself this leads to misinformation on the spinal cord or the brain. . Therefore, nerve pain are always “strange”. They are associated with abnormal sensations such as itching or deficits that manifest themselves for the patient as muscle weakness, gait disturbance, or “like walking on cotton wool”. The character of the pain is often burning and stinging, in other cases, pain is already triggered by your lightest touch, heat or cold stimuli. This image may change from patient to patient and in the course of a disease.

What painkillers help with nerve pain? Usual painkillers help good and fast at Gewebsschmerzen. The reason is that traditional painkillers such as aspirin, ibuprofen®, Voltaren or the newer coxibs the inflammatory metabolism, triggers any tissue injury interrupt. Therefore, these agents act quickly analgesic, if they are well tolerated. In neuralgia these agents do not act! Traditional painkillers of the type of anti-inflammatory drugs are dangerous even in many cases, a nerve disease, because the underlying disease (eg. As the sugar disease) often can also lead to other organ damage in these painkillers may worsen yet. Therefore, other means are used in neuralgia. Which includes: Antidepressants such. As amitriptyline (z. B. Saroten®), duloxetine (z.

B. Cymbalta®). These funds are not as used to treat concomitant depression. The pain relief is the result of a normalization of the nervous metabolism in spinal cord and brain. The nerve pain occurs to the impoverishment of so-called over excipients (Transmitter, where u a serotonin and norepinephrine. . ). But why act only certain antidepressants. Anticonvulsants: drugs that can otherwise be used to treat epilepsy turned-sets here especially when attacks pain help (Examples: gabapentin (as Neurontin®) and pregabalin (Lyrica®)). These drugs prevent the activation of nerve cells by noxious stimuli. Opioids: These drugs work in all forms of physical Schmer-zen. They are also highly effective especially with the polyneuropathy, but should only be used in low doses. In certain cases, nerve pain can be treated by drugs, which are contained in plasters.

These are glued to the painful areas, the substances then penetrate into the skin and have a direct effect on the nerve fiber endings. The advantage is that besides local irritation, no side effects occur. There are patches where a local anesthetic is included, which can affect the over stimulated nerve endings low. In other cases, you can also the capsaicin patch (popularly known as “chili patch” called) enter, which can lead to a withdrawal of pain fibers from the skin. Which procedure is appropriate in an individual case, results from the survey and investigation through the pain physicians. Extensive information on painkillers interested can get from this brochure that doctors Bochum pain clinic was written and is aimed at patients and their relatives. Interventional procedures Information on individual pain disorders